Remember that it is not for many words, but for the purity of our heart and tears of remorse that we are heard. The rules he established were called Benedictine Rule. What would it do for your spiritual life? Priesthood was not initially an important part of Benedictine monasticism – monks used the services of their local priest. Every four months, we begin again at the beginning–so we read the Rule three times every year. 480—ca. The Benedictine Rule is strict—its main theme being absolute obedience to the Abbot. Fix your eyes on the ground, thinking of your sinfulness, imagining that you already stand before the fearful judgment seat of God, and always saying in your heart what the publican in the Gospel said: “Lord, I am a sinner and not worthy to lift up my eyes up to heaven” [Lk. The Rule of St. Benedict is a timeless document - in so many ways as fresh and relevant as it was when it was written almost fifteen hundred years ago. Saint Benedict and the Twelfth-Century Reformation. : the renunciation of one's own will and the taking up of arms under the banner of Christ… BENEDICTINE RULE The Rule of St. Benedict was composed in the 6th century by St. Benedict of Nursia when he was abbot of Monte Cassino. Do you think the kind of regularity he talks about would be regimented, or merely a good discipline? Chapter 49 recommends some voluntary self-denial for. Benedict’s Rule contains seventy-three chapters of varying length, and is comparable in size to the Gospel of Matthew. 6th century) is a book of precepts written for monks living in community under the authority of an abbot.Since about the 7th century it has been adopted with equal success by communities of women. They are directed to join in spirit, as far as possible, with their brothers in the monastery at the regular hours of prayers. What happens if the man in power is not godly, or is given to fads? Benedictine monasteries, more than anything else, kept the faith alive, and their short, simple but comprehensive rulebook allowed them to clone themselves unstoppably. [Reading silently to oneself was almost unheard of.] In the same way, he should bear in mind for the infirmities of the needy, and not the bad will of the envious. He founded his own monastery in 529. The Rule of St Benedict by Benedict of Nursia (fl. Chapter 3: Of Calling the Brethren for Counsel . The Abbot should pour the water on the guest’s hands, and the whole brotherhood should join him in washing the feet of all the guests. Thus any claim to be in need is removed. To overcome this vice of private ownership, the Abbot should provide everything necessary — cowl, tunic, socks, shoes, girdle, knife, pen, needle, towel, writing tablet. Two meals a day are allowed, with two cooked dishes at each. Benedict lived in the sixth century AD and came from Nursia in Umbria. They are to set an example of humility, and can only exercise their priestly functions by permission of the abbot. This rulebook for the monastic life was written by Benedict around 530. Benedictine spirituality teaches us to bear with the world in love and to transform it as the Holy Spirit transforms us. Beds must be frequently examined by the Abbot, to prevent personal goods from being stored. Chapter 5: Of Obedience . It is a short book, consisting of 73 chapters (no more than paragraphs), and sets out St Benedict's vision of how the values of the gospel can be lived out in a community. And lastly, the monastery was envisaged not as a prison camp to punish offenders, but as a loving community where people come together to help each other in their chosen path, to submit their entire lives to the will of God.  There is, however, no evidence to suggest that Benedict intended to found a religious order in the modern sense and it was not until the Late Middle Ages that mention was made of an "Order of Saint Benedict". What can we learn from Benedict’s attitude toward possessions for our own lives? by Terrence Kardong from, Online scanned images of complete late 10th or early 11th century copy of the, An Introduction to the Rule by Jerome Theisen, former Abbot Primate of the Benedictine Confederation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rule_of_Saint_Benedict&oldid=996464640, Organisation of Catholic religious orders, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2017, All articles that may contain original research, Articles that may contain original research from May 2011, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Not to love one’s own will or wish to fulfill one’s own desires, rather obeying the word of the Lord: “I came not to do My own will but the will of Him that sent Me” [Jn 6:38]. Chapter 61 provides for the reception of strange monks as guests, and for their admission to the community. The Rule of Benedict covers and pretty much dictates all of the elements of a monk’s life, prayer, free time, work, community life. Edited and prepared for the web by Dan Graves. Let the greatest care be taken, especially when receiving the poor and travelers, because Christ is received more specially in them. London: S.P.C.K., 1931) PROLOGUE Hearken continually within thine heart, O son, giving attentive ear to the precepts of thy master. Saint Benedict's model for the monastic life was the family, with the abbot as father and all the monks as brothers. 9. The Rule (as it is usually called) is about community living—a day-to-day basic guide originally written for Christian men who wanted to be monks, telling them what to do, how to be Christ-followers in that unique way, and how to get along with each other. It must be as plain and cheap as is consistent with due economy. The Rule is so wide that it encompasses the practicalities of communal life as well as the monks’ spiritual lives. Chapter 68 orders that all cheerfully try to do whatever is commanded, however hard it may seem. Benedict contributed more than anyone else to the rise of monasticism in the West. The 1949 Edition. He died and was buried there around 547. The Rule of St. Benedict is a timeless document - in so many ways as fresh and relevant as it was when it was written almost fifteen hundred years ago. His Rule was the foundational document for thousands of religious communities in the Middle Ages. Traditionally, the daily life of the Benedictine revolved around the eight canonical hours. St. Benedict wrote his rule, the so-called Benedictine Rule, c. 535–540 with his own abbey of Montecassino in mind. Although written for monastics, many of the issues addressed in the Rule can be applied to life in the world outside the monastic community. Soon, all monks had to take three vows: Vow of poverty. Later, the monasteries were encouraged by Charlemagne, and spread like wildfire. Prologue . Later, in Chapter 7 of the Rule, we find that “The first step of humility, then, is that a man keeps the fear of God always before his eyes (Ps 35:20) and never forgets it.” If we think that the Master wrote these Chapters, which is probable, and that the Master had this clear contradiction, then we must wonder why Benedict took it over. Source for information on Benedictine Rule: New Catholic Encyclopedia dictionary. Benedictine monks are a religious order of monks and nuns of the Roman Catholic Church living under the Rule of St. Benedict of Nursia (circa 480 – circa 547). Let everyone have all things in common, as it is written, no one kept anything as his own [Acts 4:32]. These services could be very long, sometimes lasting till dawn, but usually consisted of a chant, three antiphons, three psalms, and three lessons, along with celebrations of any local saints' days. The first step of humility is to obey without delay. He is author of Ice Break: A Collection of Poems (Aetos Publications, 2019), Enduring Ministry: Toward a Lifetime of Christian Leadership (Liturgical Press, 2017), and The Gospels in Poem and Image (Aetos Publications, 2016-2019). Many Benedictine Houses have a number of Oblates (secular) who are affiliated with them in prayer, having made a formal private promise (usually renewed annually) to follow the Rule of St Benedict in their private life as closely as their individual circumstances and prior commitments permit. Greet guests with all humility, with the head bowed down or the whole body prostrate on the ground, adoring Christ in them, as you are also receiving him. Chapter 70 prohibits them from striking one another. L et us get up then, at long last, for the Scriptures rouse us 3 when they say, “It is high time for us to arise from sleep” St Benedict is often seen as the father of monasticism. To let one’s humility appear outwardly to all around. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a community of sworn obedience? Chapter 22 regulates the dormitory. Chapters 50 and 51 contain rules for monks working in the fields or travelling. About the Rule of Saint Benedict by Abbot Primate Jerome Theisen OSB", "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Rule of St. Benedict", "Understanding Decline and Renewal in the History of Life under Saint Benedict's Rule: Observations from Canada", "The Faculty Club Newsletter, October 2002", "Work Is Prayer: Not! It is a relatively short document, comprising a prologue and 73 chapters. After considerable initial struggles with his first community at Subiaco, he eventually founded the monastery of Monte Cassino in 529, where he wrote his Rule near the end of his life. The version above, first published in Hubbard's Little Journeys (1908), omits a part of the passage which enjoins the monastery, given good behaviour, to accept the guest as a permanent resident. This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 19:39. Fry, RB 1980, p. How important is taking personal initiative when w. Is Benedict right to be suspicious of talk and laughter? So, let us offer praise to our Creator “for his righteous ordinances", at Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext, Nones, Vespers, and Compline, and let us rise at night to praise him. Containing today’s events, devotional, quote and stories, © Copyright 2021. Above all, let one or two of the senior monks be appointed to go about the monastery during the reading time, and look out for any lazy brother giving himself over to idleness or vain talk, being unprofitable to himself and disturbing others. The Rule of St Benedict is a guide to direct our pathway to God. Chapter 7 divides humility into twelve degrees, or steps in the ladder that leads to heaven: Chapters 8-19 regulate the Divine Office, the Godly work to which "nothing is to be preferred", namely the eight. If we would approach men who are in power with humility and reverence, when we want to ask a favor, how much more must we beseech the Lord God of all things with all humility and pure devotion? If you go to a place and there is no there, there, it's not a Benedictine place. The latter would refer to two major components of a monastic life: first prayer and then work to support the community and its charities. The Rule of St. Benedict was composed in the 6th century by St. Benedict of Nursia when he was abbot of Monte Cassino. Advantages seen in retaining this unique Benedictine emphasis on autonomy include cultivating models of tightly bonded communities and contemplative lifestyles. 67 to 73 are additions to an earlier version of the rule. An article published by Assumption Abbey, of North Dakota, U.S., challenged that the translation of the Benedictine motto is Ora est labora, meaning, "[To say] 'Pray!' 9:7]. Most of the other rules were based on the desert origins of monastic life. This full commentary -- predominately literary and historical criticism -- is based on and includes a Latin text of Regula Benedicti (Liturgical Press). Is self-esteem an over-rated modern concern, or something Christians should pursue? Translated by Rev. The Rule of Saint Benedict has been used by Benedictines for 15 centuries, and thus St. Benedict is sometimes regarded as the founder of Western monasticism due to reform that his rules had on the current Catholic hierarchy. Chapter 3 ordains the calling of the brothers to council upon all affairs of importance to the community. This is such a strong teaching today when every person believes that he or she has a right to have things, to have material possessions, to decorate one’s own room, to purchase things without asking anyone. Let it not be allowed at all for a monk to give or to receive letters, tokens, or gifts of any kind, either from parents or any other person, nor from each other, without the permission of the Abbot. Most people used to the freedoms and luxuries of life in the modern West would find it too demanding but in its historical context, it would not have been seen that way. What is a Monastic Rule? The moment the Abbot commands anything they obey instantly as if commanded by God Himself. The Rule itself is the best witness to Benedict's life and character, showing us someone who was wise, kind, steeped in scripture and concise in expression. Boniface Verheyen, OSB. 48) shall be taught, so that by persevering in the monastery till death his disciples may "through patience share in the passion of Christ that [they] may deserve also to share in his Kingdom" (Prol. The spirit of Saint Benedict's Rule is summed up in the motto of the Benedictine Confederation: pax ("peace") and the traditional ora et labora ("pray and work"). 10:16]. Let’s find out more interesting facts about Benedictine Rule below: Facts about Benedictine Rule 1: the popularity. Chapter 2: What Kind of Man the Abbot Ought to Be . Saint Benedict's model for the monastic life was the family, with the abbot as father and all the monks as brothers. The vice of personal ownership must by all means be cut out in the monastery by the very root, so that no one may presume to give or receive anything without the command of the Abbot; or to have anything whatever as his own, neither a book, nor a writing tablet, nor a pen, nor anything else whatsoever, since monks are allowed to have neither their bodies nor their wills in their own power. Facts about Benedictine Rule 2: the spirit. Then came private Mass or spiritual reading or work until 9am when the office of Terce was said, and then High Mass. May the Lord be pleased to manifest all this by his Holy Spirit in his laborer now cleansed from vice and sin. Most people used to the freedoms and luxuries of life in the modern West would find it too demanding but in its historical context, it would not have been seen that way. The Abbot should break his fast in deference to the guest, unless it is a day of solemn fast, which cannot be broken. But the Abbot must remember, “Distribution was made to everyone according to his need.” [Acts 4:35].  However, scholarly articles published since have not given weight to this assertion, neither as support for nor as refutation of the claim. Benedict's Rule: A Translation and Commentary by Terrence G. Kardong, O.S.B. The Rule of Saint Benedict (Latin: Regula Sancti Benedicti) is a book of precepts written in 516 by Benedict of Nursia (c. AD 480–550) for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot. These different emphases emerged within the framework of the Rule in the course of history and are to some extent present within the Benedictine Confederation and the Cistercian Orders of the Common and the Strict Observance. How foolish for monks not to live as monks or for Benedictines not to follow the wise spiritual direction of Saint Benedict! 18:13]. Benedictines have chosen a life under the Rule of Benedict. Secondly, I want to suggest that the vow of stability is an excellent foundation for environmental stewardship. At noon came the office of Sext and the midday meal. Chapter 59 allows the admission of boys to the monastery under certain conditions. If he does not change, let him come under the correction of the Rule in such a way that others may fear. Anglican Benedictine Monk from Nashdom Abbey writes. Abridged, modernized and introduced by Stephen Tomkins. All guests who arrive should be received as Christ, so that he will say, “I was a stranger and you took me in” [Mt 25:35].  Saint Benedict's work expounded upon preconceived ideas that were present in the religious community only making minor changes more in line with the time period relevant to his system. Because they wear black habits, Benedictine monks are often called “Black Monks.” Benedictine monks are a religious order of monks and nuns of the Roman Catholic Church living under the Rule of St. Benedict of Nursia (circa 480 – circa 547). The rule, which spread slowly in Italy and Gaul, provided a complete directory for both the government and the spiritual and material well-being of a monastery by carefully integrating prayer, manual labour, and study into a well-rounded daily routine. This appeal to multiple groups would later make the Rule of Saint Benedict an integral set of guidelines for the development of the Christian faith. Benedict’s Rule contains seventy-three chapters of varying length, and is comparable in size to the Gospel of Matthew. Chapter 55 says clothing is to be adequate and suited to the climate and locality, at the discretion of the abbot. The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict, are a monastic religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Benedict. They are to have certain dispensations from the strict Rule, chiefly in the matter of food. As Scripture says, “A man full of words is not established in the earth". Chapter 30 directs that a wayward brother who has left the monastery must be received again, if he promises to make amends; but if he leaves again, and again, after the third time all return is finally barred. [Ps 21:7] 8. How would you cope in such circumstances yourself? A popular legend claims that the Rule of Saint Benedict contains the following passage: The bulk of the passage is excerpted (with chance errors) from a translation of chapter 61 of Benedict's Rule found in the book Select historical documents of the Middle Ages (1892), translated and edited by Ernest Flagg Henderson, and reprinted in 1907 in The Library of Original Sources, Vol. Chapter 6: Of Silence . Then, after lunch, let them rest in bed in complete silence — or if anyone wants to read for himself, let him read quietly enough not to disturb others. Despite being called an order, the Benedictines do not operate under a sing 3). It looked like Christianity in Europe was finished. 45) in which the "way to salvation" (Prol. They provide teaching about the basic monastic virtues of humility, silence, and obedience as well as directives for daily living. Chapter 4: The Instruments of Good Works . The Holy Rule of St. Benedict. The Rule of St. Benedict is not only the basic guide for living for monks of various orders (Benedictine, Cistercian, et cetera), but is also the inspiration for today’s neo-monastic movements in cities around the world. , During the more than 1500 years of their existence, the Benedictines have not been immune to periods of laxity and decline, often following periods of greater prosperity and an attendant relaxing of discipline. May the Lord our God give us the wisdom of His Holy Spirit to guide us in our lives. Show honor to them all, especially to fellow Christians and to wayfarers. 14:11] The steps of humility: 1. 3. Of the seventy-three chapters comprising the Rule, nine treat of the duties of the abbot, thirteen regulate the worship of God, twenty-nine are concerned with discipline and the penal code, ten refer to the internal administration of the monastery, and the remaining twelve consist of miscellaneous regulations. Chapters 39 and 40 regulate the quantity and quality of the food. After a period of at least a year, and after the individual feels called to this way of life, they ask to be accepted as an oblate. Saint Basil of Caesarea codified the precepts for these eastern monasteries in his Ascetic Rule, or Ascetica, which is still used today in the Eastern Orthodox Church. [These services were every two or three hours throughout the day.] Thanks to this love, every rule that he previously kept out of fear, he will now begin to keep without any effort, naturally, by force of habit, no longer from the fear of hell but for the love of Christ, from the habit of good and the pleasure of virtue. 4. Benedictines read a portion of the Rule of Benedict every day. The Rule may have been written 1500 years ago with a very different audience in mind but even, or perhaps especially, reading in and between the lines, it offers us wise counsel for today. Sam Rahberg is former Director of the Benedictine Center and a spiritual director in St. Paul. To this day, The Rule of St. Benedict is the most common and influential Rule used by monasteries and monks, more than 1,400 years after its writing. If we ought sometimes to refrain from useful speech for the sake of silence, how much more should we to abstain from evil words because of the punishment due to sin? Once he has climbed all these steps of humility, the monk will arrive at the love of God, which being perfect casts out fear. The rules he established were called Benedictine Rule. This tradition is guided by values distilled from the Rule of St. Benedict, written in the sixth century by St. Benedict, the founder of the Benedictine monastic order. ... That is the secret of Benedictine prayer. To control the monks of Monte Cassino St. Benedict framed a Rule, or constitution, which was modelled in some respects upon the earlier Rule of St. "OSB. St Benedict lived in the 5th century, and wrote his famous Rule as a practical guide for abbots and brother monks living together in a monastic community. “Keeping every rule for the love of Christ.” Benedict of Nursia ca. To Prefer Nothing to Christ 'Come, follow me' The monastery is the place where monks and nuns are called to live the Christian Gospel. Benedict was a devout Italian Christian who became a monk at the age of 20, wishing to withdraw from the world after he visited Rome and was shocked by how immoral life in the Holy City had become. Chapter 5 prescribes prompt, ungrudging, and absolute obedience to the superior in all things lawful. It evokes the name of St. Benedict, who lived in the 6th century, together with all those who have been inspired by the Rule of Benedict and associate themselves with the Benedictine spiritual tradition. In this way they share in the spiritual benefits of the sons and daughters of Benedict who are dedicated to the monastic life by vow. Concerning this, Scripture tells us, “Reveal your way to the Lord and trust in Him", [Ps 36:5] and “Confess to the Lord, for he is good, for his mercy endures forever.” [Ps 10:1] 6. , An early source for the quotation is the University of California, Berkeley faculty club, which has, for years, posted a version of the above passage on its bulletin board in Gothic script. Pray with him, and then associate with one another in peace. The first one is the famous ora et labora. Of course, the whole Rule is about our relationship with God and is permeated with the spirit of prayer, but Benedict’s explicit treatment of the subject is very short, very simple and takes a lifetime to understand fully. As for bedding, a straw mattress, a blanket, a bedspread and a pillow are enough. The Benedict Option draws on the virtues in the Rule to change the way Christians approach politics, church, family, community, education, our jobs, sexuality, and technology. The English Benedictine Reform or Monastic Reform of the English church in the late tenth century was a religious and intellectual movement in the later Anglo-Saxon period.In the mid-tenth century almost all monasteries were staffed by secular clergy, who were often married.The reformers sought to replace them with celibate contemplative monks following the Rule of Saint Benedict. 67 to 73 are additions to an earlier version of the rule. To refrain from speaking, staying silent until one is asked. The latter is expected to integrate manual labor, prayer, and study into a daily routine. To hide no evil thoughts or secret sins from one’s Abbot, but to confess them humbly. 2. Although written for monastics, many of the issues addressed in the Rule can be applied to life in the world outside the monastic community. Benedict's greatest debt, however, may be to the anonymous document known as the Rule of the Master, which Benedict seems to have radically excised, expanded, revised and corrected in the light of his own considerable experience and insight. The Benedictine order is one example of a monastic order. It argued that that interpretation is a result of urban legend and that the actual motto is Ora et labora, meaning "pray and work!" They then gathered in Chapter to receive instructions for the day and to attend to any judicial business. The monastic movement that began in Egypt and Syria in the third century and soon spread to the Western Mediterranean used and produced all sorts of texts: lives of saints, monastic travelogues, descriptions of monastic institutions, and homilies or talks on spiritual topics. So, considering the importance of silence, permission to speak should be seldom given to perfect disciples, even for good and holy conversation, for it is written: “If you talk a lot you shall not escape sin", [Prov. Other perceived losses include inefficiency and lack of mobility in the service of others, and insufficient appeal to potential members. Perhaps that is why Benedictine monasticism, for both men and women, became so pronounced a feature of English Church life before the Reformation. The Rule of St. Benedict 3 dislike they esteem unlawful. The Rule of Saint Benedict or Regula Benedict was written by Saint Benedict of Nurisa, the patron saint of Europe. The Benedictine Rule is popular among the monks for these precepts can bridge the formulaic institutionalism and individual zeal. A Brief History of the Benedictine Order Traditionally, AD 529 is considered to be the year in which St Benedict founded the monastery at Montecassino. Does the Bible teach this viewpoint? Chapter 7: Of Humility . In recent years discussions have occasionally been held[by whom?] It evokes the name of St. Benedict, who lived in the 6th century, together with all those who have been inspired by the Rule of Benedict and associate themselves with the Benedictine spiritual tradition. Monks should not worry about the color or the texture of these clothes: they should be whatever you can get most cheaply. 547) Organizes Monks. A Pax Book, preface by W.K. The monastic community and the living tradition Many scholars maintain that ch. It establishes a way of life rooted in the Gospel and grounded in the scriptural principles of charity, humility, stability, and faithfulness. Rule ch. I have watched my mouth, dumb and humbled, and kept silent even from good things” (Ps 38:2—3). Having the mind of a beginner, being receptive to starting anew, starting fresh, starting over–this, too, is a Benedictine practice. Monks dressed in loose brown robes, tied at the waist with a cord. Chapter 48 emphasizes the importance of daily manual labour appropriate to the ability of the monk.  Even more impressively, Benedictines are widely credited with having saved Western civilization from the ravages of the barbarian invasions. The Benedictine Order never had a rite of its own celebrating Mass.Since the reform of Pope Pius V (see Quo primum), it always uses the Roman Rite of Mass; earlier, its monks often used local rites, as did those who served the cathedral of Durham.. Liturgy of the Hours. The duration of labour varies with the season but is never less than five hours a day. Benedictine Rule - The Rule of St. Benedict 528AD. It is a relatively short document, comprising a prologue and 73 chapters. Examples include the Camaldolese, the Cistercians, the Trappists (a reform of the Cistercians), and the Sylvestrines. Under the inspiration of Saint Anthony the Great (251-356), ascetic monks led by Saint Pachomius (286-346) formed the first Christian monastic communities under what became known as an Abbot, from the Aramaic abba (father).. At the heart of reform movements, past and present, lie Hermeneutical questions about what fidelity to tradition means. Chapter 64 orders that the abbot be elected by his monks, and that he be chosen for his. Because of this, almost all the Rule is applicable to communities of women under the authority of an abbess. Search for: Prayer + Chant. BENEDICTINE SPIRITUALITY The word "Benedictine" is relatively modern; it scarcely existed before the 17th century. Benedict's influence was very strong. Chapter 1: Of the Kinds or the Life of Monks . At the community exercises, however, let the prayer always be short, and the sign having been given by the Abbot, let all rise together. 57.9). Chapter 54 forbids the monks to receive letters or gifts without the abbot's leave. St. Benedict wrote his rule with his own abbey of Montecassino in mind. Some decades later, the monastery was destroyed and not rebuilt for a long time. Complete Text of The Holy Rule of St. Benedict.The 1949 Edition. Chapter 4 lists 73 "tools for good work", "tools of the spiritual craft" for the "workshop" that is "the enclosure of the monastery and the stability in the community". If they obey with ill will, and murmur with their lips and in their hearts, even if they fulfill the command, it is not acceptable to God, who sees the heart of the murmurer. Everyone have all things as if commanded by God Himself the vow of poverty says clothing is to have change. And facts provided about the color or the life of monks to salvation '' ( of... Their local priest with due economy order the appointment of officials to take of... Chapters 36 and 37 address care of the Holy Rule monks, in the earth.! 72 briefly exhorts the monks ’ spiritual lives High Mass get most cheaply quality the... 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Abbey of Montecassino in mind the meals, which vary with the have... Obedience to the abbot to behave on a journey this unique Benedictine emphasis autonomy! To an earlier version of the Cistercians ), and obedience as well as directives for daily living,. Encompasses the practicalities of communal recreation, the monasteries were encouraged by charlemagne, and is comparable size... Monk is to obey without delay Benedictine life is unthinkable without obedience, value.