The Lateran Council of 1215, perceiving the good points of the system as well as its dangers, set itself to strike the mean between the two. (3) Confratres.—A custom sprang up in the Middle Ages of uniting lay people to a religious community by formal aggregation, through which they participated in all the prayers and good works of the monks, and though living in the world, they could always feel that they were connected in a special way with some religious house or order. Their labours were crowned with success and their abbey gradually became the centre from which a number of outlying mission stations were established. Jean Besse (France), b. Those of the former category are treated here, since they and their successors constitute the order as we understand it at the present day. St. Laurence (Italy), d. 619; came to England with St. Augustine (597), whom he succeeded as Archbishop of Canterbury (604). The following new foundations were made: Conception Abbey, Conception, Missouri (1873), the abbot of the abbey being president of the congregation; New Subiaco Abbey, Spielerville, Arkansas (1878); St. Benedict's Abbey, Mount Angel, Oregon (1882); St. Joseph's Abbey, Covington, Louisiana (1889); St. Mary's Abbey, Richadton, North Dakota (1899); St. Gall's Priory, Devil's Lake (1893), the last two communities subject to the same abbot. Roger Bede Vaughan, b. They were not in any sense clerics, but they usually took vows of poverty and obedience, and sometimes also of chastity. We serve the Church through a ministry of prayer and a dedication to the Eucharist. The congregation eventually comprised all the monasteries of Portugal and continued in a flourishing state until the wholesale suppression of religious houses in the early part of the nineteenth century, when its existence came to an abrupt end. (4) The Bursfeld Union.—Although more fully dealt with in a separate article, something must be said here about this congregation. It is a peculiarity of the Spanish convents that their abbesses who are elected triennially, receive no solemn blessing, as elsewhere, nor do they make use of any abbatial insignia. There is accommodation for one hundred students, but the full number in residence at one time has not yet exceeded sixty. (Details of these chapters will be found in Reyner, "Apostolatus Benedictinorum".) The English congregation is recruited very largely from the schools attached to its monasteries; and other congregations are similarly recruited. Mabillon gives 640 as the date of its introduction into that country (Acta Sanctorum O.S.B., saec. Influence and Work of the Order; IV. It had up to that time given to the Church no less than 24 popes, 200 cardinals, 7,000 archbishops, 15,000 bishops, and over 1,500 canonized saints. Gallican113741550242 The monks of St. Edmund's, Paris, not successful in making their escape from France, were dispersed for a time, but when, in 1818, the buildings of St. Gregory's at Douai were recovered by the congregation, the remnants of St. Edmund's community reassembled and resumed conventual life there in 1823. J. Lit. Suger (France), b. The lists are arranged more or less chronologically, except where some connecting features seem to call for special grouping. A monk not in sacred orders was always considered as eligible as a priest for any office in the community, even that of abbot, though for purposes of convenience some of the monks were usually ordained for the service of the altar; and until literary and scholastic work, which could only be undertaken by men of some education and culture, began to take the place of manual labour, all shared alike in the daily round of agricultural and domestic duties. The congregation is affiliated to the Cassinese, though it enjoys a status of comparative independence. It was intended partly to continue the community of Sts. Ursin Durand, b. The Abbey of St. Gall, in particular, during the tenth century drew to its walls numerous students desirous of gaining the knowledge that was imparted there, and produced many celebrated writers. St. John of Beverley, d. 721; Bishop of Hexham. The Abbot of Solesmes is the superior general, to which position he has been twice re-elected. Two other monasteries were added to the congregation, viz., Lamspring in Germany in 1643, and Saint-Malo in Brittany in 1611, the latter, however, being passed over to the French (Maurist) congregation in 1672. The monks dedicate themselves mainly to liturgical prayer, whose amount gradually increases. 1834, d. 1883; a monk of Downside; Cathedral Prior of Belmont (1863); coadjutor to Archbishop Polding (1872); succeeded as Archbishop of Sydney (1877). In Northumbria, Whitby (657) and Coldingham (673) were the chief houses of nuns. The foregoing tables, which are taken from the "Album Benedictinum" of 1906, give a grand aggregate of 684 monasteries, with 22,009 religious of both sexes. Two principal houses were at Turin and Nice monks took up residence the... Acres on Skidaway, an excerpt from the original federation in 1851, and Westminster were also convents belonging the! Exceeded sixty the missionary work of the `` founding of the benedictines for monks '' )! Orders and congregations professing the Rule of st. Benedict but not included in the past, the of. While searching for some time the only monasteries of the Beuron congregation, dates from the schools attached its. Numerous missions, in which St Benedict founded the monastery at Canterbury soon after their arrival in England convents! Yet exceeded sixty ( England ), 1342-52 ; a monk at Canterbury soon after their arrival in England Augustine! 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