Very early in embryonic development, diffusion beco… Developmental series were used to show stages within a species, but inconsistent views and stages made it even more difficult to compare different species. "[37], In his introduction to the Nazi party ideologue Alfred Rosenberg's 1930 book, The Myth of the Twentieth Century, Peter Peel affirms that Rosenberg had indeed read Haeckel. His Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (1866; “General Morphology of Organisms”) presented many of his evolutionary ideas, but the scientific community was little interested. Haeckel saw evolution as the basis for a unified explanation of all nature and the rationale of a philosophical approach that denied final causes and the teleology of the church. [12], On the occasion of his 80th birthday celebration he was presented with a two-volume work entitled Was wir Ernst Haeckel verdanken (What We Owe to Ernst Haeckel), edited at the request of the German Monistenbund by Heinrich Schmidt of Jena. [21], Haeckel's affinity for the German Romantic movement, coupled with his acceptance of a form of Lamarckism, influenced his political beliefs. Ernst Haeckel’s Alleged Anti-Semitism and Contributions to Nazi Biology Robert J. Richards1 The University of Chicago Figure 1: Haeckel’s stem-tree of the nine human species, with their varieties; the ape-man at the source. Vol. For a fuller list of works of and about Haeckel, see his entry in the German Wikisource. [55], Haeckel was awarded the title of Excellency by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1907[56] and the Linnean Society of London's prestigious Darwin-Wallace Medal in 1908. Ernst Haeckel, scientist, philosopher and artist, made a significant contribution to early evolutionary theory, and was profoundly influential on the Fine and Decorative Arts of his time. We must mention here one of the most important results of the comparative study of languages, which for the Stammbaum of the species of men is of the highest significance, namely that human languages probably had a multiple or polyphyletic origin. By the time Haeckel was teaching he was able to use a textbook with woodcut illustrations written by his own teacher Albert von Kölliker, which purported to explain human development while also using other mammalian embryos to claim a coherent sequence. [citation needed], Haeckel's literary output was extensive, including many books, scientific papers, and illustrations.[61]. In 1852 Haeckel completed studies at the Domgymnasium, the cathedral high-school of Merseburg. His propensities to systematization along evolutionary lines led to his valuable contributions to the knowledge of such invertebrates as medusae, radiolarians, siphonophores, and calcareous sponges. "Haeckel's embryos continued". G. Fischer, Jena, Germany [in German] BHL Reference page. Review (2002), 77, pp. With the fall of Ernst Haeckel's Biogenetic Law in the 1920s, the evolutionary study of embryos receded into the intellectual backwaters for decades. He was so precise From, Paleontological tree of vertebrates. [52][53] There were multiple versions of the embryo drawings, and Haeckel rejected the claims of fraud. ), German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. Haeckel dedicated some species of jellyfish of particular beauty (such as Desmonema annasethe) to his unforgettable wife. As a philosopher, Ernst Haeckel wrote Die Welträthsel (1895–1899; in English: The Riddle of the Universe, 1901), the genesis for the term "world riddle" (Welträtsel); and Freedom in Science and Teaching[7] to support teaching evolution. Robert J. Richards, "Myth 19: That Darwin and Haeckel Were Complicit in Nazi Biology", in. [82] This opinion was also shared by the scholarly journal, Der Biologie, which celebrated Haeckel's 100th birthday, in 1934, with several essays acclaiming him as a pioneering thinker of Nazism. (Haeckel, 1866), vol. He set forth his ideas in popular writings, all of which were widely read though they were deplored by many of Haeckel’s scientific colleagues. This is so because the growing embryo needs a constant supply of oxygen, and nutrients. On one hand, Haeckel was an advocate of scientific racism. It is generally called the Caucasian race, but as, among all the varieties of the species, the Caucasian branch is the least important, we prefer the much more suitable appellation proposed by Friedrich Müller, namely, that of Mediterranese. Darwin had described evolution through the natural selection of accumulated favourable variations that in time formed new species; to Haeckel, however, this was only a beginning, with consequences to be pursued further. Richardson & Keuck 2001. His chief interests lay in evolution and life development processes in general, including development of nonrandom form, which culminated in the beautifully illustrated Kunstformen der Natur (Art forms of nature). After publication he told a colleague that the images "are completely exact, partly copied from nature, partly assembled from all illustrations of these early stages that have hitherto become known". [13] This - in German - is how evolutionary biologist Ernst Haeckel became the first person to define the term ecology in his work published in 1866, entitled "General Morphology of Organisms". He held that evolutionary biology had definitively proven that races were unequal in intelligence and ability, and that their lives were also of unequal value. "While some criticisms of the drawings are legitimate, others are more tendentious", Richardson and Keuck "Haeckel's ABC of evolution and development". [57][citation needed], In Jena he is remembered with a monument at Herrenberg (erected in 1969),[58] an exhibition at Ernst-Haeckel-Haus,[59] and at the Jena Phyletic Museum, which continues to teach about evolution and share his work to this day. Ernst Haeckel's contribution to Evo-Devo and scientific debate: a re-evaluation of Haeckel's controversial illustrations in US textbooks in response to creationist accusations. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Reynolds, Andrew // History of Science;Jun2008, Vol. See for example, their Fig. [12] He sold his "Villa Medusa" in Jena in 1918 to the Carl Zeiss foundation, which preserved his library. At that time, no remains of human ancestors had yet been identified. Some scientists of the day suggested[30] Dubois' Java Man as a potential intermediate form between modern humans and the common ancestor we share with the other great apes. Haeckel argued that humans were closely related to the primates of Southeast Asia and rejected Darwin's hypothesis of Africa. His gastraea theory, tracing all multicellular animals to a hypothetical two-layered ancestor, stimulated both discussion and investigation. In contrast to most of Darwin's supporters, Haeckel put forward a doctrine of evolutionary polygenism based on the ideas of the linguist August Schleicher, in which several different language groups had arisen separately from speechless prehuman Urmenschen (German: proto-humans), which themselves had evolved from simian ancestors. In humans, the cardiovascular system is one of the first entities to develop in the early embryo. [79][80] They also point to incompatibilities between evolutionary biology and Nazi ideology. At the end of 1868 his review in the Archiv für Anthropologie wondered about the claim that the work was "popular and scholarly", doubting whether the second was true, and expressed horror about such public discussion of man's place in nature with illustrations such as the evolutionary trees being shown to non-experts. At Messina he studied the one-celled protozoan group Radiolaria, members of which are strikingly crystalline in form; not surprisingly, Haeckel later maintained that the simplest organic life had originated spontaneously from inorganic matter by a sort of crystallization. Haeckel responded with angry accusations of bowing to religious prejudice, but in the second (1870) edition changed the duplicated embryo images to a single image captioned "embryo of a mammal or bird". The first chapter included an illustration: "As some of my readers may never have seen a drawing of an embryo, I have given one of man and another of a dog, at about the same early stage of development, carefully copied from two works of undoubted accuracy" with a footnote citing the sources and noting that "Häckel has also given analogous drawings in his Schöpfungsgeschichte." He saw the social sciences as instances of "applied biology", and that phrase was picked up and used for Nazi propaganda. In the Spring of that year he drew figures for the book, synthesising his views of specimens in Jena and published pictures to represent types. These ideas eventually fell from favour. He was first to postulate a “missing link” between ape and man and was proven correct when Java man was found in 1891. The two massive volumes sold poorly, and were heavy going: with his limited understanding of German, Darwin found them impossible to read. [20], Haeckel became the most famous proponent of Monism in Germany. Das System der Medusen. Ernst Haeckel, in full Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, (born Feb. 16, 1834, Potsdam, Prussia [Germany]—died Aug. 9, 1919, Jena, Ger. He was giving successful "popular lectures" on his ideas to students and townspeople in Jena, in an approach pioneered by his teacher Rudolf Virchow. For example, Haeckel described and named hypothetical ancestral microorganisms that have never been found. Ernst Haeckel has 251 books on Goodreads with 19547 ratings. He also proposed the kingdom Protista[12] in 1866. [14] This group lasted until 1933 and included such notable members as Wilhelm Ostwald, Georg von Arco (1869-1940), Helene Stöcker and Walter Arthur Berendsohn. With each of these human species, language developed on its own and independently of the others. [81], Nazis themselves divided on the question of whether Haeckel should be counted as a pioneer of their ideology. Ernst Haeckel’s art became very popular as it paired colorful lithographs with information about these scientific marvels of nature. Watts E, Levit GS, Hossfeld U (2019). He was known for his contributions in the scientific realm, including discovering and naming thousands of species, coining different biological terms, and mapping a genealogical tree. In the introduction to his 1871 The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, Darwin gave particular praise to Haeckel, writing that if Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte "had appeared before my essay had been written, I should probably never have completed it". The occupation of physician appeared less worthwhile to Haeckel after contact with suffering patients. [46]:264–267[47], Darwin's On the Origin of Species, which made a powerful impression on Haeckel when he read it in 1864, was very cautious about the possibility of ever reconstructing the history of life, but did include a section reinterpreting von Baer's embryology and revolutionising the field of study, concluding that "Embryology rises greatly in interest, when we thus look at the embryo as a picture, more or less obscured, of the common parent-form of each great class of animals." [51] Recent analyses (Richardson 1998, Richardson and Keuck 2002) have found that some of the criticisms of Haeckel's embryo drawings were legitimate, but others were unfounded. Relating different images on a grid conveyed a powerful evolutionary message. [36], In his Ontogeny and Phylogeny Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould wrote: "[Haeckel's] evolutionary racism; his call to the German people for racial purity and unflinching devotion to a 'just' state; his belief that harsh, inexorable laws of evolution ruled human civilization and nature alike, conferring upon favored races the right to dominate others ... all contributed to the rise of Nazism. One of the first problems with the illustrations in the first row of Haeckel’s comparative embryo plates in his work Anthropogenie is that he drew many embryos, including the human and chick embryos, without either pericardial or heart bulges, where they possess these in reality. It was frequently reprinted until 1926. Haeckel was included by name as a forbidden author. 1: 1–363. 495–528) show that it is a simplification to suppose that Haeckel held the recapitulation theory in its strong form. In 1862 he was appointed extraordinary (that is, associate) professor of zoology, and that year, when he published his monograph on the Radiolaria, he expressed in it his agreement with Darwin’s theory of evolution; from that time he was a proponent of Darwinism, and he soon was lecturing to scientific and lay audiences on the descent theory. Although Haeckel's ideas are important to the history of evolutionary theory, and although he was a competent invertebrate anatomist most famous for his work on radiolaria, many speculative concepts that he championed are now considered incorrect. He termed these early organisms Mon… More importantly, though, Daniel Gasman (1998). SS captain and biologist Heinz Brücher wrote a biography of Haeckel in 1936, in which he praised Haeckel as a "pioneer in biological state thinking". [40], Haeckel claimed the origin of humanity was to be found in Asia: he believed that Hindustan (Indian subcontinent) was the actual location where the first humans had evolved. It was later said that "there is evidence of sleight of hand" on both sides of the feud between Haeckel and Wilhelm His. [78] The principal arguments of historians who deny a meaningful connection between Haeckel and Nazism are that Haeckel's ideas were very common at the time, that Nazis were much more strongly influenced by other thinkers, and that Haeckel is properly classified as a 19th century German liberal, rather than a forerunner to Nazism. Their son Walter was born in 1868, their daughters Elizabeth in 1871 and Emma in 1873. [31], The creationist polygenism of Samuel George Morton and Louis Agassiz, which presented human races as separately created species, was rejected by Charles Darwin, who argued for the monogenesis of the human species and the African origin of modern humans. [69] As a result of the "struggle for existence", it followed that the "lower" races would eventually be exterminated. A staunch evolutionary biologist, Haeckel put Darwin on the world map. The evolutionary study of embryos reached a peak in the late 1800s thanks primarily to the efforts of one extraordinarily gifted, though not entirely honest, scientist named Ernst Haeckel (left). He had long been thinking of “vital molecular movement” when, in 1876, he attempted to place heredity on a molecular basis in a work entitled Die Perigenesis der Plastidule (“The Generation of Waves in the Small Vital Particles”). It was agreed by all European evolutionists that all vertebrates looked very similar at an early stage, in what was thought of as a common ideal type, but there was a continuing debate from the 1820s between the Romantic recapitulation theory that human embryos developed through stages of the forms of all the major groups of adult animals, literally manifesting a sequence of organisms on a linear chain of being, and Karl Ernst von Baer's opposing view, stated in von Baer's laws of embryology, that the early general forms diverged into four major groups of specialised forms without ever resembling the adult of another species, showing affinity to an archetype but no relation to other types or any transmutation of species. PNG alpha-transparencies of Haeckel's "Kustformen der natur", aDiatomea: artificial life experiment with 3d generated diatoms, influenced by Haeckel, Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, Relationship between religion and science, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernst_Haeckel&oldid=997619034, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2015, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Botanist identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 12:24. Between 1859 and 1866 Haeckel worked on many phyla, such as radiolarians, poriferans (sponges) and annelids (segmented worms). Ernst Mayr. From them he traced one-celled forms with nuclei and three kingdoms—animal, vegetable, and the neutral, borderline “protista.” His artistic leanings toward ideal symmetries led him to outline numerous genealogical trees, sometimes to supply missing links or branches; and he reconstructed the human ancestral tree to demonstrate humankind’s descent from the lower animals. In particular, "one and the same, moreover incorrectly interpreted woodcut, is presented to the reader three times in a row and with three different captions as [the] embryo of the dog, the chick, [and] the turtle". Despite the significance to ideas of transformism, this was not really polite enough for the new popular science writing, and was a matter for medical institutions and for experts who could make their own comparisons. Haeckel was also a promoter of scientific racism[8] and embraced the idea of Social Darwinism. [22] He was the first person to use the term "first world war". The strong recapitulation hypothesis views ontogeny as repeating forms of adult ancestors, while weak recapitulation means that what is repeated (and built upon) is the ancestral embryonic development process. [83] Other Nazis kept their distance from Haeckel. 435–436)". Ernst Haeckel was born on 16 February 1834, in Potsdam (then part of the Kingdom of Prussia). 1998. He used morphology to reconstruct the evolutionary history of life, in the absence of fossil evidence using embryology as evidence of ancestral relationships. [12], Ernst Haeckel studied under Karl Gegenbaur at the University of Jena for three years, earning a habilitation in comparative anatomy in 1861, before becoming a professor of zoology at Jena, where he remained for 47 years, from 1862 to 1909. 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