John Chapman, of the Beuronese congregation, b. Other important houses are at Allegheny (Pennsylvania), Atchison (Kansas), Chicago (2), Covington (Kentucky), Duluth (Minnesota), Erie (Pennsylvania), Ferdinand (Indiana), Mount Angel (Oregon), Newark (New Jersey), New Orleans (Louisiana), Shoal Creek (Arkansas), and Yankton (South Dakota). The Valladolid congregation had St. Benedict's, Valladolid (founded 1390), for its mother-house, and amongst its houses were St. Martin's, Compostella (ninth century); St. Benedict's, Sahagún, the largest in Spain; St. Vincent's, Salamanca, famous for its university; Our Lady's, Montserrat; and St. Domingo at Silos. Edward Cuthbert Butler (England), b. Large-hearted abbots, eager to advance the interests of their poorer neighbours, often voluntarily expended considerable annual sums on the building and repairing of bridges, the making of roads, etc., and everywhere exercised a benign influence directed only towards improving the social and material condition of the people amongst whom they found themselves. St. Benedict's convent at St. Joseph, Minnesota, founded in 1857, is the largest Benedictine convent in America. 1814, d. 1900; Bishop of Port Victoria (1849); founders of New Nursia, Australia. The copyists of Fontanelle, Reims, and Corbie were especially noted for the beauty of their penmanship, and the number of different manuscripts transcribed by some of their monks was often very large. The Beuronese constitutions were first adopted, but these have since been replaced by new constitutions. (See MAURISTS.). The monks own vast tracts of bushland around their monastery and they rear horses, sheep, and cattle on a large scale. The first general chapter was held at Tibaes in 1568 and a president elected. All the American convents are subject to the bishops of their respective dioceses. Other important Anglo-Saxon convents were: Ely, founded by St. Etheldreda in 673, Barking (675), Wimborne (713), Wilton (800), Ramsey, Hants (967), and Amesbury (980). I. Benedictines Magazine is a journal exploring issues of interest to monastic women and men.It contains articles on scripture, spirituality, community life, ministry, prayer and liturgy. APA citation. The lists are arranged more or less chronologically, except where some connecting features seem to call for special grouping. St. Filbert (France), d. 684; founder of Jumièges. Each order was governed by a Grand Master who had jurisdiction over the whole order, and under him were the commanders who ruled over the various houses. The education of these children was the germ out of which afterward developed the great monastic schools. Alcuin (England), d. 804, monk of York; founder of schools in France under Charlemagne. The copyists of Fontanelle, Reims, and Corbie were especially noted for the beauty of their penmanship, and the number of different manuscripts transcribed by some of their monks was often very large. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York. John Beche, Abbot of Colchester; all executed (1539) for denying the supremacy of Henry VIII in ecclesiastical matters. Besides its regular prelates, the English congregations, by virtue of the Bull "Plantata" (1633), allowed to perpetuate as titular dignities the nine cathedral-priories which belonged to it before the Reformation, viz., Canterbury, Winchester, Durham, Coventry, Ely, Worcester, Rochester, Norwich, and Bath; to these have been added three more, Peterborough, Gloucester, and Chester, originally Benedictine abbeys but raised to cathedral rank by Henry VIII. There are also small Benedictine convents of more recent foundation at Minster (Thanet), Ventnor, Dumfries, and Tenby, and one at Princethorpe, originally a French community founded at Montargis in 1630, but driven to England in 1792, and now almost exclusively English. Even in the Cluniac congregation the power of the Abbot of Cluny was, after the twelfth century, somewhat curtailed by the institution of chapters and definitors. In 1493 a monk from Montserrat accompanied Columbus on his voyage of discovery and became vicar-Apostolic of the West Indies, but his stay was short, and he returned to Spain. (d) Knights of Montesa, founded 1316, an offshoot from Calatrava, instituted by ten knights of that order who placed themselves under the abbot of Cîteaux instead of their own Grand Master. Of the sixty-six monasteries suppressed in 1835, five have been restored, viz., Montserrat (1844), St. Clodio (1880), Vilvaneira (1883), and Samos (1888) by the Cassinese P. O. congregation, and Silos (1880) by the French monks from Ligugé. And for the first time Benedictine life goes beyond Europe when the first abbeys of the New World are established in Brazil. Jean Besse (France), b. They were at first under the direction of the Olivetan Benedictines, but after the death of their foundress, in 1440, they became independent. Lit. In Normandy, later on, Bec became a great scholastic centre under Lanfranc and St. Anselm, and through them gave a fresh impetus to the English schools. The earliest departures from this system occurred when several of the greater abbeys began sending out offshoots, under the form of daughter-houses retaining some sort of dependence upon the mother abbey from which they sprang. The community includes a number of aboriginal converts amongst its lay brethren. In some of the Spanish orders, permission to marry was granted in the seventeenth century. Monasteries such as these often became in turn the centres of revival and reform in their respective neighbourhoods, so that during the tenth and eleventh centuries there arose several free unions of monasteries based on a uniform observance derived from a central abbey. 1809, d. 1854; founder of Pierre-qui-Vire and of the French province of the Cassinese Congregation of the Primitive Observance (1850). Beuronese9711143,8125141 In these two latter congregations, however, there were some modifications, which made their dissent from the original ideal less marked than in those previously enumerated. To further this end he brought over from England in 782 Alcuin and several of the best scholars of York, to whom he entrusted the direction of the academy established at the royal court, as well as various other schools which he caused to be started in different parts of the empire. English history is especially fortunate in this respect, the monastic chroniclers including St. Bede, Ordericus Vitalis, William of Malmesbury, Florence of Worcester, Simeon of Durham, Matthew Paris, and Eadmer of Canterbury. (e) The Spanish Province dates from 1862, the year in which the ancient Abbey of Montserrat, founded in the ninth century, was affiliated to the Cassinese P. O. congregation. So zealous were they in this twenty-seven suffered martyrdom for the Faith, whilst eleven died in prison. Thus St. Birinus evangelized Wessex, St. Chad the Midlands, and St. Felix East Anglia, whilst the Celtic monks from Iona settled at Lindisfarne, whence the work of St. Paulinus in Northumbria was continued by St. Aidan, St. Cuthbert, and many others. St. Bernard of Clairvaux drew up their rule, and they always regarded the Cistercians as their brethren. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. 1384, d. 1440; widow; founded order of Oblates (Collatines) in 1425. Other old monasteries which had been restored, St. Clodio in 1880, Vilvaneira in 1883, and Samos in 1888, were, in 1893, joined with Montserrat to form the Spanish province. In Savoy there were the two orders: (k) the Knights of St. Maurice, and (l) those of St. Lazarus, which were united in 1572. The Rule of St. Benedict has as its core community life with a balance of work and prayer. S. P. N. Benedicti (Cologne, 1603); Hélyot, Histoire des ordres religieux (Paris, 1792); Id., Dict. All these colleges flourished until the Reformation, and even after the dissolution of the monasteries many of the ejected monks retired to Oxford on their pensions, to pass the remainder of their days in the peace and seclusion of their Alma Mater. To further this end he brought over from England in 782 Alcuin and several of the best scholars of York, to whom he entrusted the direction of the academy established at the royal court, as well as various other schools which he caused to be started in different parts of the empire. In 1567, a stricter life was instituted in the convent of Thomar, the principal house of the Order of Christ, under this title, where the full monastic life was observed, with a habit and vows similar to those of the Cistercians, though the monks were under the jurisdiction of the grand master of the Knights. Congregation of Saint Maur in The Benedictines by Dom Bruno Hicks OSB, the first chapter of Benedictine Biographies (CTS, 1912). St. John Gualbert, the founder of Vallombrosa, was the first to introduce the system of lay brethren, by drawing a line of distinction between the monks who were clerics and those who were not. Benedict.). The general chapter nominated the officials of all the houses; the monks belonged to no one monastery in particular, but to the whole congregation; and by thus destroying all community rights, and placing all power in the hands of a small committee, the Olivetan congregation approximated nearest to the alter orders like the Dominicans and Jesuits, with their highly centralized systems of government. Alston, G.C. Remiremont became for women what Luxeuil was for men, the centre from which sprang a numerous spiritual family, and though later on it was converted into a convent of noble canonesses, instead of nuns properly so called, a modified form of the Benedictine Rule was still observed there. In France Charlemagne inaugurated a great revival in the world of letters and stimulated the monks of his empire to study, as an essential of their state. Continuity was preserved by the last survivors of Broadway being incorporated in 1876 into the newly founded community of Fort Augustus in Scotland. 1575; d. 1641; a monk of Dieulouard and author of "Sancta Sophia". Suger (France), b. Denis de Sainte-Marthe, b. St. Swithin, d. 862; Bishop of Winchester. Their names were Joseph Serra and Rudesind Salvado. Originally called the Oblates of Mary, Queen of Apostles, the sisters began following a monastic hours schedule defined in the Rule of St. Benedict, and chanting the Divine Office in Latin, according to the 1962 Breviarium Monasticum. There are thirty-four convents with nearly two thousand nuns, all of which have been founded within the last sixty years. The following are some of the chief amongst them: In England: Canterbury, founded by St. Augustine, enlarged by Lanfranc and St. Anselm, containing, according to a catalogue of the thirteenth century, 698 volumes; Durham, catalogues printed by the Surtees Society (VII, 1838); Whitby, catalogues still existing; Glastonbury, catalogues still existing; Wearmouth; Croyland, burnt in 1091, containing 700 volumes; Peterborough. In 1550 the office of grand master of this order, as well as that of Aviz, was united to the crown. St. Benedict Biscop (England), d. 690; founder of Wearmouth and Jarrow. 1810, d. 1878; founder and first Abbot-General of Cassinese congregation of Primitive Observance (1851). In Flanders: Nivelles, Mons, Andenne, Maubeuge, and Belisie of the seventh century; and Denain, 764. During the penal times the Catholic Church in England was kept alive in great measure by the Benedictine missioners from abroad, not a few of whom shed their blood for the Faith. There they commenced the practice of works of piety and penance, and were for their "humility" allowed to return to Lombardy. In 1803 many of the abbeys were suppressed and those that were suffered to remain were forbidden to receive fresh novices. Louis Bulteau, b. It was only in the last years of the nineteenth century, under the urging of Pope Leo XIII, that Benedictines began to organize themselves into a worldwide confederation of congregations. 1081, d. 1151; Abbot of St. Denis and Regent of France. Bernard of Cluny (France), d. 1109; famous in connexion with the eleventh-century "Ordo Cluniacensis" which bears his name. From thence spread, hand in hand, Christianity and Benedictine monasticism, to Denmark and Scandinavia, and from the latter even to Iceland. Bl. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02443a.htm. (12) The Austrian Congregations.—For many centuries the monasteries of Austria maintained their individual independence and their abbots acquired positions of much political power and dignity, which, though considerably diminished since medieval times, are still such as are enjoyed by no other Benedictine abbots. Sister Anne began the formal transfer process to the Erie Benedictines in 1993 and made her monastic profession in 1997. St. Wulfstan, d. 1095; Bishop of Worcester. Cistercians (Trappists) 583,637 That of Cluny was the first, and it was followed, from time to time, by others, all of which are deal with in separate articles. But there does not seem ever to have been a period of widespread and general corruption in the order. New foundations were made at Béthisy (1859), Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, the ancient Fleury (1865), Oklahoma, Indian Territory, U.S.A. with an Apostolic vicariate attached (1874), Belloc (1875), Kerbeneat (1888), Encalcat (1891), Nino-Dios, Argentina (1899), and Jerusalem (1901). Most of the older universities of Europe have grown out of monastic schools. Here they are gradually rebuilding the abbey on its original foundations. (See FONTEVRAULT.). In November 2001, at the meeting taking place at Nairobi, Kenya, after a consultation process with all the monasteries of Benedictine Women around the world, it was decided to use the name COMMUNIO INTERNATIONALIS BENEDICTINARUM (CIB) to designate all communities of Benedictine women recognised by the Abbot Primate as such and enlisted in the Catalogus Monasteriorum O.S.B. Benedictine monasticism never took such deep root in the eastern countries of Europe as it had done in the West. Cara Arlene. It is important to note, moreover, that all such reforms as ever achieved any measure of success came invariably from within, and were not the result of pressure from outside the order. Mabillon assigns the beginning of the change to the year 620 though more probably the Benedictine Rule was not received in its entirety at so early a date, but was only combined with the other rules then in force. The capitula of Aachen and the Concordia Regularis were the earliest examples of such constitutions. Present condition of the order May 7, 2014 - The Coat of Arms of Munich, Germany, showing a monk, commemorating the founding of the city by Benedictines. (c) The Belgian Province began in 1858 with the affiliation to Subiaco of the eleventh-century Abbey of Termonde. The Abbot of St. Ottilien is the superior general and the Beuronese Abbot of Seckau the apostolic visitor. During the first four or five centuries after the death of St. Benedict there existed no organic bond of union amongst the various abbeys other than the Rule itself and obedience to the Holy See. The Benedictines, also known as the Black Monks in reference to the colour of the monks’ habits, were monks who took their name from St. Benedict of Nursia, who was born in Italy around 480 and died in the mid-sixth century. Augustine Baker (England), b. In Portugal there were three orders, also founded for purposes of defence against the Moors:— (f) The Knights of Aviz, founded 1147; they observed the Benedictine Rule, under the direction of the abbots of Cîteaux and Clairvaux, and had forty commanderies. “Being Benedictine in the 21st Century: Spiritual Seekers in Conversation,” planned for May 28-30, 2021, in Atchison, KS, marks a first-ever gathering of professed Benedictines, Oblates, and seekers (including Millennials and Nones) who have experienced a conversion of heart … Robert of Arbrissel, formerly chancellor to the Duke of Brittany, embraced an eremitical life in which he had many disciples, and having founded a monastery of canons regular, carried out a new idea in 1099 when he established the double Abbey of Fontevrault in Poitou, famous in France for many centuries. (See FONTEVRAULT.) Three weeks ago we marked an anniversary that I want to celebrate and reflect on with you. This congregation has been largely recruited from the congregation of Beuron, to which it is bound by close ties. Throughout the period of suppression the monks were the champions of the old Faith, and when turned out of their homes very few conformed to the new religion. Glastonbury, Abingdon, St. Alban's, and Westminster were also famous in their day and produced many illustrious scholars. In 1880 the French Government annexed Pierre-qui-Vire and expelled the community by force; some of them, however, were able to regain possession a year or two later. Prosper Guéranger (France), b. 1272, d. 1348; founder of the Olivetans (1319). Guido d'Arezzo (Italy), died c. 1028; inventor of the gamut. St. Benedict Biscop, who returned to England with Archbishop Theodore after some years abroad, presided over his school at Canterbury for two years and then, going north, transplanted the new educational system to Wearmouth and Jarrow, whence it spread to Archbishop Egbert's school at York, which was one of the most famous in England in the eighth century. St. Odo (England), d. 961; Archbishop of Canterbury. D. the Benedictines . Jean-Baptiste Muard (France), b. The community of Beuron were banished in 1875 by the "May Laws" of the Prussian Government and found a temporary home in an old Servite monastery in the Tyrol. In the earliest days of the order it was the custom to receive children in the monasteries that they might be educated by the monks. It remains for many centuries a model which other Congregations copy. To all these monasteries are attached numerous missions, in which the monks exercise the cure of souls. Here they set to work, establishing conventual life, as far as was possible under the circumstances, and applying themselves assiduously to the work of the mission. The order was definitely established in 1134 under the guidance of St. Bernard, who placed it under the Benedictine rule. 1845, d. 1894; a monk of Beuron. There were not less successful in the conduct of the schools they established, of which those at Soreze, Saumur, Auxerre, Beaumont, and Saint-Jean d'Angely were the most important. He went to St. Paul's, Rome, where he was joined by his two brothers, and all were professed in 1856, one dying soon after. Aev., III); Pomposia, with an eleventh-century catalogue printed by Montfaucon (Diarium Italicum, c. xxii). It gradually came to embrace all of the chief Benedictine houses of Italy, to the number of nearly two hundred, divided into seven provinces, Rome, Naples, Sicily, Tuscany, Venice, Lombardy, and Genoa. They desired that … John Lydgate (England), died c. 1450; a monk of Bury St. Edmunds; poet. Orders and congregations professing the Rule of St. Benedict but not included in the Benedictine Federation are as follows:—. The Beuronese constitutions were first adopted, but these have since been replaced by new constitutions. John Chapman, of the Beuronese congregation, b. St. Thomas of Canterbury or Thomas Becket, born c. 1117, martyred 1170; Chancellor of England (1155); Archbishop of Canterbury (1162). Benedictine monasteries are often characterized as local institutions with a great deal of autonomy. This was originally founded in 1687 as a college for Benedictines of the Cassinese congregation, but later on monks of other congregations were also admitted. De Beuron (Bruges, 1891); Dolan, Succisa Virescit in Downside Review, I-IV. Bernard of Cluny (France), d. 1109; famous in connexion with the eleventh-century "Ordo Cluniacensis" which bears his name. 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