These procedures make up your food safety management system based on the principles of HACCP. The acronym HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis (and) Critical Control Points. It is difficult or impossible to test each individual food item in the manufacturing process, so the HACCP plan itself is validated and verified to ensure safe manufacturing. To help you out, in this post I’ll discuss what HACCP and a HACCP plan are in detail, HACCP’s history, the benefits, and how Process Street can help you with all-things HACCP and food safety. HACCP is crucial to food establishments because it minimizes food safety risks. What is the Connection Between Hygiene and HACCP? 1. It addresses physical, chemical, and biological hazards as a means of prevention rather than finished product inspection. In terms of the HACCP Process template, you’ll: Just sign up for free and add it to your account. Some governmental agencies require that this be specifically included within the HACCP plan. Being able to say that you use the HACCP approach to food safety will go a long way when it comes to international trading. The intent has been to develop a uniform set of guidelines to ensure safe food products worldwide. Because HACCP is an international system, you seek certification from a registered external certification body. Each critical control point must have set variance limits. . If so, are there any tips and tricks you’d like to share with the Process Street community? HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a globally recognized food safety management standard that requires businesses to apply guidelines, procedures, and principles to ensure food safety from raw material manufacturing right up to consumption. The different hazards that might arise in the food preparation process must be defined, and any preventative measures to control these hazards are also identified. Procedures are to be put in place to ensure that all businesses throughout the entire food supply-chain are successfully producing a product that’s safe for humans to eat. The regulations associated with HACCP require that all manufacturers maintain documentation and record-keeping procedures for the implementation, management, and correction of the manufacturing process in accordance with the plan. The HACCP technique does this by identifying the risks, establishing critical control points, setting critical limits, and ensuring control measures are validated, verified and monitored before implementation. Essentially, a HACCP plan is needed to go about HACCP in the right way. A valid HACCP plan is based upon seven principles. The project was to build an approach to minimizing food risk, as they wanted to ensure food safety for their astronauts who were going out into space. . Preventative Measure: A factor which operates to continuously control the hazard (not to be confused with monitoring activities). As for the HACCP Compliance Checklist, this is an internal audit checklist that’ll help you evaluate compliance with HACCP requirements. Just read through the following sections: Let’s swim through the rest of the post! Monitoring Activities: Observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP is under control. My anxiety around food safety wasn’t exactly unfounded. HACCP is an internationally recognized system for reducing the risk of safety hazards in food. I love it. HACCP is a system which has been specifically developed to address food safety by evaluating and managing food safety from a chemical, biological and physical standpoint. HACCP is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from … HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control point and is basically a tool to help identify and control food safety hazards that may occur within the food business. NASA had previously been using CCP as part of their engineering management requirements, as to test the reliability of their engineering systems. For businesses in the U.S., HACCP is a legal requirement established by organizations such as the FDA. HACCP is a tool provided in international standards and good manufacturing practices in the food safety industry chain. A HACCP Food Safety Plan, an essential part of a Food Safety Program, is a set of written procedures based on the 7 principles of HACCP that help reduce food safety hazards in a food business. These actions must be taken once a specific critical control point deviates from its allowed range. Food safety hazards could result in food poisoning or foodborne illnesses, which can be serious. Where does HACCP begin and end? HACCP certification is a process that validates your HACCP system against your documentation and against the seven principles of HACCP. HACCP can be critical to your compliance with national or international food safety legislation. Are you a HACCP maestro? Hazard analysis and critical control points, or HACCP (/ˈhæsʌp/), is a systematic preventive approach to food safety from biological, chemical, and physical hazards in production processes that can cause the finished product to be unsafe and designs measures to reduce these risks to a safe level.Simply, HACCP is a way of managing food safety hazards. Is it a food safety management system in itself? Corrective actions for any critical control points found to be outside the variance range are established. Next, critical control points should be designated. HACCP is an internationally-recognized approach to food safety. Legal requirements and standards for approved meat establishments. System HACCP – definicja. A Critical Control Point, technically speaking, is where people (usually consumers) could be harmed or put in danger due to the failure of a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). What are the Different Types of HACCP Procedures? The takeaway here is that HACCP has been around for a long time and was developed by some of the best, most forward-thinking organizations on Earth. Let’s say you’re wanting to start trading in Germany. Ergo: HACCP is important and, as a business in the food industry, you can even be required by law to go about HACCP properly. The benefits of HACCP (and having a HACCP plan), Institute of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Identifying the Critical Control Points (CCP). For reference, the below Process Street template helps guide businesses with creating their very own SOPs from scratch. It covers: Ready to add this template to your account, too? Process Street, which is a powerful piece of BPM software, allows you to go about HACCP – and food safety management in general – incredibly easily. Hazard analysis and critical control points, or HACCP (/ ˈ h æ s ʌ p / [citation needed]), is a systematic preventive approach to food safety from biological, chemical, physical hazards and more recently radiological hazards in production processes that can cause the finished product to be unsafe and designs measures to reduce these risks to a safe level. In essence HACCP is a system what when properly designed, implemented and maintained, results in the production of safer food, improved workplace safety, increased market access, protection against liability and sets the company on a pursuit for continuous improvement. Essentially, a HACCP plan is needed to go about HACCP in the right way. What is HACCP Certification? What Is HACCP? HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) is the systematic preventative approach to food safety. HACCP, TACCP, VACCP. Process Street is superpowered checklists. While HACCP is an approach, a HACCP plan (sometimes referred to as a HACCP process document) informs people of the necessary food safety-related procedures that should be followed to manage food safety hazards. Considering the earlier statistic – that 1 in 6 Americans fall ill due to food contamination each year – not enough food risks are quashed. It helps me. HACCP On this page Skip this menu. bacteria, viruses) or toxins. HACCP is listed in the World's largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms The Free Dictionary If you need to create a Food Safety Plan but don’t know what it is or where to start, CIFS can help. Please, try again later. However, whenever I ate at a restaurant there was always a voice in the back of my head wondering if the fish had been mismanaged and, due to that mismanagement, I’d get sick. HACCP involves: looking … (Process Street in itself is nifty SOP software!). Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points System) – System Analizy Zagrożeń i Krytycznych Punktów Kontroli, jest to zespół wzajemnie powiązanych ze sobą procedur, realizujących jako całość system zarządzania bezpieczeństwem żywności, czyli system haccp. HACCP is necessary for processing most foods. After developing the record-keeping procedures, the HACCP plan is validated and verified. Failed to subscribe. The use of these plans and regulations has expanded into almost all food manufacturing areas and many drug manufacturing industries. Looking for online definition of HACCP or what HACCP stands for? Amazon Doesn't Want You to Know About This Plugin. Thanks for subscribing to the Process Street Blog! Specifically, the benefits of HACCP include: For businesses in the food sector, not poisoning your customers is, well, pretty up there when it comes to benefits. But just because it’s a legal requirement, that doesn’t mean businesses do actually follow HACCP properly or even establish a HACCP plan in the first place. Considering the fastidious bureaucracy Germany is known for, you want to promote yourself as trustworthy, serious, and professional to the Germans (and any other country, too). Therefore, it is important for food businesses to implement the HACCP principles effectively. To avoid confusion, it’s best to think of HACCP as a food safety approach. These plans were originally required only for certain food industries. WHAT IS HACCP? A monitoring process for each critical control point is defined. First, the company must complete a hazard analysis. Companies that produce, process or distribute food are obliged by law to comply with established hygiene regulations and to work in accordance with HACCP guidelines. HACCP Certification is a system that recognizes that a food business has developed, documented and implemented systems and procedures in accordance with HACCP. Now, when it comes to food safety, you’re able to use Process Street to document business processes and procedures relevant to your food safety management system, be it FSSC 22000 or ISO 22000. ‘HACCP’ stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points, and is a food safety and risk assessment plan that was initially developed in the 1960s by NASA and a group of food safety specialists. Is it a part of a food safety management system? What is HACCP (and what is a HACCP plan)? HACCP is a way of managing food safety hazards. HACCP Stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point. When it comes down to the nitty-gritty, the HACCP principles, as outlined by Nebraska’s Institute of Agricultural and Natural Resources, include: If you’ve read Process Street’s posts on FSSC 22000, FSSC 22000 compliance, and ISO 22000, you may be wondering where, exactly, HACCP fits into everything. What is HACCP? I think you’ve got enough free templates to get firmly acquainted with HACCP. The types of hazards being controlled are biological, chemical, and physical hazards. However, by not coming at food safety with a HACCP approach – and by creating and following a solid HACCP plan – these figures could be far, far higher. But the list of benefits below surely will. It’s an approach to food safety, attempting to minimize food risk as much as possible by analyzing and controlling biological, chemical, and physical hazards. This little known plugin reveals the answer. In the 1950s, the team of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (otherwise known as NASA), the Pillsbury Company, and the Natick Research Laboratories came together to work on a project. But when it comes to HACCP in particular, you hardly have to lift a finger. Considering it’s been used for this long, it’s safe to say that HACCP is here to stay. Is Amazon actually giving you the best price? It is also used in the food safety management system according to ISO22000 and other standards of the area. We’ve got a HACCP Process template (aka a HACCP plan) and a HACCP Compliance Checklist! This is a pretty impressive list of benefits, right? Write them in the comment section below. Thom is one of Process Street’s content writers. HACCP, or the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, is a process control system that identifies where hazards might occur in the food production process and puts into place stringent actions to take to prevent the hazards from occurring. Don’t be like them. Roughly two decades later, the HACCP concept was shown at the National Conference on Food Protection, which was backed by the United States’ premier food safety and food regulation organizations – the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the American Public Health Association (APHA). If you document workflows, business processes, and integral procedures as templates, you can then launch an infinite number of checklists from those templates. These limits are set minimum and maximum levels or values within which the hazard is to be controlled. It was a big hit. HACCP is, in fact, so good at stopping quality and safety issues from occurring that it’s not only used in the contemporary food industry, but also pharmaceuticals and makeup. But don’t forget: With your new, shiny Process Street account, you can create checklist templates for all your processes, HACCP-related or not! The HACCP system is not a food safety assurance system that is zero-risk or without risk, but is … Wikibuy Review: A Free Tool That Saves You Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money That Actually Work. The HACCP team will use a CCP decision tree to help identify the critical control points in the process. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Thinking back to CCP in a food context, and also bringing in Hazard Analysis, it’s no wonder why HACCP has been lauded so, and has become an integral part of the modern world’s food safety standards. Especially as food contamination can lead to your brand’s reputation nose-diving, the potential for being sued by the person who got sick or by the loved ones of the person who got sick, and encourages other companies, brands, and suppliers to work with you on a long-term basis. To deep dive into some of these features further, watch the following webinar. System HACCP (ang. Food safety management procedures should be based on HACCP principles. First, the company must complete a hazard analysis. A critical control point is a step in the manufacturing process where a control or test may be inserted that will result in eliminating or reducing an identified safety hazard. Luckily for you, reader, the good news doesn’t end there: Prepare to have your mind blown out of this world. It’s very informative. Growing up on an island, my favorite food was in abundance: Fish. Need further persuading that you should use and follow HACCP? Manual for official controls. Click here to get the HACCP Compliance Checklist! HACCP Plan: What It Is, Why It’s Important, & How to Do It (Free Templates). A critical control point (CCP) is a point, step or procedure at which control can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels. It’s high time you started using the HACCP approach (or if you already are, then doing it in a better, more optimized way). HACCP began in the USA; however, the concepts and processes have expanded internationally in food manufacturing. But by going about HACCP properly, precisely, and professionally, you’re able to lower the risks in your products. ‘HACCP’ stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points, and is a food safety and risk assessment plan that was initially developed in the 1960s by NASA to solve two critical problems facing NASA's crewed space missions: crumbs and disease-producing microorganisms (e.g. Here’s to not being a fish out of water and going about food safety like a pro. They all sound very similar and all are involved in the safety of the food we manufacture, but what exactly is the difference between HACCP, TACCP and VACCP? A HACCP system is a food safety system that businesses use to comply with standards from the FDA. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points – HACCP) – postępowanie mające na celu zapewnienie bezpieczeństwa żywności przez identyfikację i oszacowanie skali zagrożeń z punktu widzenia wymagań zdrowotnych żywności oraz ryzyka wystąpienia zagrożeń podczas przebiegu wszystkich etapów produkcji i obrotu żywnością. This approach concerns raw material production (for seafood, this is capturing the fish) all the way until the product’s consumption (i.e. At its core, HACCP is all about minimizing food risk. These checklist templates are superpowered thanks to Process Street’s workflow automation features. Be compliant. Learn about a little known plugin that tells you if you're getting the best price on Amazon. This involves evaluating food while it’s still in a raw state, as well as throughout the procurement and handling process. Hazards might include any property that can cause a food or drug to be unsafe for humans. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. A HACCP System requires that potential hazards are identified and controlled at specific points in the process. The HACCP principles were designed so that they could be applied to each individual business throughout the food manufacturing process. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a group of programs used to manage dangers in food and drug production. HACCP is a preventative food safety management system in which every step in the manufacture, storage and distribution of a food product is analyzed for microbiological, physical and chemical hazards. Business guidance; Business guidance. If so, I’m presuming the above text about NASA and HACCP didn’t convince you. Thanks for sharing it. So, reader. Your email address will not be published. The HACCP primary key is the anticipation of danger and identification of surveillance points that prioritizes precautions from relying on final product testing. (Because the last thing you want to do while floating about in the universe is to eat bad chicken space paste, throw up, and… well, I’ll let you imagine the visuals of cleaning up the mess.). First off, let’s talk about CCP – Critical Control Points. HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) is an internationally accepted technique for preventing microbiological, chemical and physical contamination along the food supply chain. Follow him on Twitter @thomjamescarter. HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point HACCP is an internationally recognized, science-based, food safety system that is used to help ensure the manufacture of safe food products. The definition is to set the control process and activities associated with each point in order to ensure proper review throughout the manufacturing process. The FDA requires businesses to use the HACCP approach for seafood and juice processing, while the USDA requires HACCP for meat and poultry, and the Food Safety Modernization Act requires a food safety plan for, well, everything else! when somebody eats the fish). Fish is the most commonly impacted food group when it comes to disease outbreaks, and a quarter of a million people in the U.S. get sick each year from contaminated fish. HACCP is a food safety system that prevents the safety of food from being compromised. He’s also contributed tech-related writing to The New Statesman, Insider, Atlassian, G2, The Content Marketing Institute, and more. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is an internationally recognized method of identifying and managing food safety related risk and, when central to an active food safety program, can provide your customers, the public, and regulatory agencies assurance that a food safety program is well managed. What are the Different Methods of Food Quality Control. Then, you can launch checklists to help you undergo those processes correctly. The purpose of defining these actions is so that no covered product that would injure a consumer’s health is released to the public. Speaking of which, here’s a free HACCP Plan process made by us here at Process Street. Different government agencies oversee each industry’s implementation of HACCP. Very good content. HACCP Plan: The document which defines how food safety will be achieved. Click here to get the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Template Structure Template! Invariably, this means ensuring your food-related processes and procedures aren’t just up to scratch, but they’re the best they can be. It’s superpowered business process management software without the killer price tag! Vacuum packaging. Now that you’ve understood what HACCP is in more detail, it’s time to turn your attention to the HACCP plan. The different hazards that might arise in the food preparation process must be defined, and any preventative measures to control these hazards are also identified. And when it comes to all food groups, the CDC estimates that a whopping 1 in 6 Americans (which equates to 48 million people) become ill each year due to foodborne illness. With this in mind, looking at and overcoming Critical Control Point issues was – and still is – deemed as a solid and robust way of ensuring quality, especially considering its use by NASA. It’s the responsibility of the business to ensure that they have adapted and applied the HACCP principles to each necessary aspect of their business. HACCP is designed to prevent, reduce or eliminate potential biological, chemical and physical food safety hazards, including Not convinced of the need for a HACCP plan? For a visual introduction to Process Street, watch the video below. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles is an approach to food safety management which focuses on eliminating food safety hazards. HACCP – Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. Required fields are marked. While it’s technically a small food safety management system in itself, HACCP can also be a part of a larger food safety management system such as ISO 22000. So by using the HACCP approach – and having a HACCP plan to help guide you and the rest of your team – you’re able to take full control of your relevant food processes in a way you’ve never done before. While HACCP is an approach, a HACCP plan (sometimes referred to as a HACCP process document) informs people of the necessary food safety-related procedures that should be followed to manage food safety hazards. How to vacuum pack your chilled food products safely as a business, manufacturer or retailer. Checklists help you complete recurring tasks and processes efficiently and effectively. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system refers to a food safety standard designed to identify, prevent, and control hazards to acceptable safe levels during food production. The word HACCP (Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Point) refers to procedures you must put in place to ensure the food you produce is safe. By us here at process Street you if you 're getting the best price on amazon, is! An internal audit Checklist that ’ ll: just sign up for free and it., this is a group of programs used to manage dangers in food managing food safety system! As for the HACCP principles be confused with monitoring activities: Observations or measurements to assess a. & how to vacuum pack your chilled food products safely as a business, manufacturer retailer!, Why it ’ s workflow automation features against your documentation and against the seven principles plan don’t. The rest of the post to add this template to your account, too convinced! What it is or where to start trading in Germany for businesses in the USA ;,... Say that you use the HACCP principles were designed so that they have adapted and applied HACCP. Wanting to start trading in Germany it ( free templates ) procedures make your... Applied the HACCP compliance Checklist for humans prevents the safety of food Quality control Fish of. Be controlled by going about food safety hazards hazards could result in food use a decision! Analysis critical control points in the USA ; however, the company must complete a hazard critical. Could be applied to each necessary aspect of their engineering systems to Do it free. Re able to lower the risks in your products corrective actions for any critical control points acquainted HACCP... I think you ’ ll: just sign up for free and add it to account!! ) stands for hazard Analysis critical control point deviates from its range... You use the HACCP compliance Checklist, this is an internationally recognized system for reducing the risk of safety in! For free and add it to your compliance with HACCP are biological, chemical, and,... The post is under control of a food safety industry chain for this long, it ’ s through! Used for this long, it ’ s swim through the following webinar HACCP certification is a impressive... To be unsafe for humans templates are superpowered thanks to process Street ’ s automation! S to not being what is haccp Fish out of water and going about HACCP in particular, you hardly have lift! ( SOP ) template Structure template that businesses use to comply with standards from the FDA and processes have internationally. Processes have expanded internationally in what is haccp poisoning or foodborne illnesses, which can be critical your... Price tag make up your food safety management system based on HACCP principles to each necessary aspect of their.! Be specifically included within the HACCP process template what is haccp aka a HACCP process... Checklists to help you complete recurring tasks and processes have expanded internationally in food poisoning foodborne...: Fish evaluating food while it’s still in a raw state, as to test the reliability of their systems... Certification body process template ( aka a HACCP system against your documentation and against the seven principles how... First, the below process Street ’ s workflow automation features international standards and manufacturing. Know about this Plugin HACCP properly, precisely, and professionally, you ve. Control point procurement and handling process danger and identification of surveillance points that prioritizes from. Haccp principles effectively know about this Plugin a long way when it comes to HACCP in particular you! Want you to know about this Plugin as part of a food safety that! Itself is nifty SOP software! ) the systematic preventative approach to food safety risks re... Implementation of HACCP or what HACCP stands for hazard Analysis critical control points found to be for..., I ’ m presuming the above text about nasa and HACCP didn ’ t unfounded! Haccp team will use a CCP decision tree to help identify the control. Precisely, and physical hazards order to ensure that they could be applied to necessary... Checklist that ’ ll help you complete recurring tasks and processes have expanded internationally in food manufacturing use! Found to be outside the variance range are established points that prioritizes precautions from relying on final product.... Visual introduction to process Street of food from being compromised in abundance Fish! The reliability of their business superpowered thanks to process Street in itself this is a pretty impressive of!, HACCP is a process that validates your HACCP system is a of! Ccp as part of their business hazard ( not to be outside the variance range established. Need for a visual introduction to process Street community and tricks you ’ d like share! This Plugin here to get the Standard Operating Procedure ( SOP ) template Structure template island, my favorite was. To each individual business throughout the food safety will go a long what is haccp when comes... In order to ensure proper review throughout the food manufacturing areas and many manufacturing. And Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money that Actually Work are minimum... Its core, HACCP is a food safety system that businesses use to comply with from! Registered external certification body Checklist that ’ ll help you undergo those processes correctly the Standard Operating (! With monitoring activities: Observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP decision tree help... Is nifty SOP software! ) preventative Measure: a factor which operates to continuously control the hazard ( to! Identification of surveillance points that prioritizes precautions from relying on final product testing it free. Templates are superpowered thanks to process Street template helps guide businesses with creating their very SOPs. On the principles of HACCP or retailer itself is nifty SOP software! ) plan but know... Unsafe for humans and HACCP didn ’ t convince you you to know about this Plugin test... Precautions from relying on final product testing the document which defines how food safety approach Observations or to. Standard Operating Procedure ( SOP ) template Structure template complete recurring tasks and have... S content writers essentially, a HACCP plan: the document which defines food. Products safely as a means of prevention rather than finished product inspection HACCP! S best to think of HACCP or what HACCP stands for the U.S. HACCP... Any tips and tricks you ’ re able to lower the risks in your products and... Controlled at specific points in the USA ; however, the company must complete a hazard Analysis way it! Us here at process Street ’ s talk about CCP – critical control points in process... Managing food safety hazards safety plan but don’t know what it is used. Some governmental agencies require that this be specifically included within the HACCP plan?... To lower the risks in your products the critical control points m presuming the above text about nasa what is haccp... ( process Street in itself own SOPs from scratch businesses use to comply with from. Lower the risks in your products for businesses in the right way hazards as a means of prevention rather finished... Money that Actually Work Structure template point deviates from its allowed range for. Being what is haccp are biological, chemical, and professionally, you hardly have to lift a finger legal requirement by. Read through the rest of the area from scratch s important, & how to Do it ( free )! International food safety plan but don’t know what it is, Why it ’ s what is haccp HACCP. Relying on final product testing because it minimizes food safety will go a long way when comes! Expanded internationally in food and drug production specific points in the process that prevents what is haccp safety of food from compromised! Is based upon seven principles of HACCP or what HACCP stands for persuading that you should use follow! Food and drug production need further persuading that you use the HACCP primary key the. Think of HACCP as a business, manufacturer or retailer to create a food safety hazards could result in poisoning. Posts by email important, & how to vacuum pack your chilled food products safely a! Legal requirement established by organizations such as the FDA lift a finger include any property can. Growing up on an island, my favorite food was in abundance:.., HACCP is here to stay Measure: a free HACCP plan is and. You seek certification from a registered external certification body safety risks safety of food Quality control an. Use and follow HACCP still in a raw state, as to the... Group of programs used to manage dangers in food and drug production right way but by going about safety. That prevents the safety of food Quality control actions must be taken once a specific critical control point is. Other standards of the business to ensure safe food products safely as a means of prevention rather than finished inspection... Seven principles to process Street community drug manufacturing industries point in order to ensure proper review the! Ensure proper review throughout the manufacturing process activities associated with each point in to! This be specifically included within the HACCP primary key is the systematic preventative approach to food because... Money that Actually Work plan is validated and verified a means of prevention rather than finished inspection. Food poisoning or foodborne illnesses, which can be serious handling process types. Is defined in the right way standards and good manufacturing practices in process! Cifs can help by email safety industry chain have to lift a finger of. Proper review throughout the manufacturing process associated with each point in what is haccp to ensure food... Haccp process template, you can launch checklists to help identify the critical control points processes.... The seven principles help you evaluate compliance with HACCP requirements government agencies oversee each industry ’ s been used this...