Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) was the German scientist who coined the phrase “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny” and the terms “Darwinism” and “ecology.”. [76], On the other hand, Haeckel was not an anti-Semite. In particular, "one and the same, moreover incorrectly interpreted woodcut, is presented to the reader three times in a row and with three different captions as [the] embryo of the dog, the chick, [and] the turtle". Ernst Haeckel was a German biologist, naturalist, and artist who pioneered the practice of using artistic illustrations to capture the likenesses of animals in the wild during the 19th century. [13] During a trip to the Mediterranean, Haeckel named nearly 150 new species of radiolarians. From p. 215: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Ernst Haeckel's evolutionary scheme presented in the form of a tree. SS captain and biologist Heinz Brücher wrote a biography of Haeckel in 1936, in which he praised Haeckel as a "pioneer in biological state thinking". some Anthozoa and Vermes) where we are authorised to interpret each embryological form directly as the historical representation or portrait-like silhouette of an extinct ancestral form. Ernst Haeckel’s art became very popular as it paired colorful lithographs with information about these scientific marvels of nature. [31], The creationist polygenism of Samuel George Morton and Louis Agassiz, which presented human races as separately created species, was rejected by Charles Darwin, who argued for the monogenesis of the human species and the African origin of modern humans. In those days of great interest in protoplasm, it was believed for a while that certain deep-sea dredgings had brought up such structureless organisms; when scientists found this to be in error, Haeckel continued to insist, throughout the years, that “monera” existed. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (1834–1919) wanted to be a botanist—his favorite book as a teenager was Mathias Schleiden’s Die Pflanzen und ihr Leben (1848), and his hero was Humboldt (Uschmann 1972, Krausse 1987, Hopwood 2000, Di Gregorio 2005, Richards 2008). Haeckel also claimed that Lemuria connected Asia and Africa, which allowed the migration of humans to the rest of the world.[43][44]. It was a bestselling, provocatively illustrated book in German, titled Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, published in Berlin in 1868, and translated into English as The History of Creation in 1876. [12] He sold his "Villa Medusa" in Jena in 1918 to the Carl Zeiss foundation, which preserved his library. This species alone (with the exception of the Mongolian) has had an actual history; it alone has attained to that degree of civilisation which seems to raise men above the rest of nature. ), German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. After publication he told a colleague that the images "are completely exact, partly copied from nature, partly assembled from all illustrations of these early stages that have hitherto become known". With the fall of Ernst Haeckel's Biogenetic Law in the 1920s, the evolutionary study of embryos receded into the intellectual backwaters for decades. He had long been thinking of “vital molecular movement” when, in 1876, he attempted to place heredity on a molecular basis in a work entitled Die Perigenesis der Plastidule (“The Generation of Waves in the Small Vital Particles”). Such experiences in marine biology strongly attracted Haeckel toward zoology, but dutifully he took a medical degree, as his family wished, at Berlin in 1857. The turning point in Haeckel’s thinking was his reading of Charles Darwin’s 1859 work, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. His propensities to systematization along evolutionary lines led to his valuable contributions to the knowledge of such invertebrates as medusae, radiolarians, siphonophores, and calcareous sponges. [57][citation needed], In Jena he is remembered with a monument at Herrenberg (erected in 1969),[58] an exhibition at Ernst-Haeckel-Haus,[59] and at the Jena Phyletic Museum, which continues to teach about evolution and share his work to this day. For example, at the time when Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859), Haeckel postulated that evidence of human evolution would be found in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Haeckel responded with angry accusations of bowing to religious prejudice, but in the second (1870) edition changed the duplicated embryo images to a single image captioned "embryo of a mammal or bird". and says the Nazis rejected Haeckel, since he opposed antisemitism, while supporting ideas they disliked (for instance atheism, feminism, internationalism, pacifism etc.). On 21 October he visited Charles Darwin at Down House in Kent. He set forth his ideas in popular writings, all of which were widely read though they were deplored by many of Haeckel’s scientific colleagues. The evolutionary study of embryos reached a peak in the late 1800s thanks primarily to the efforts of one extraordinarily gifted, though not entirely honest, scientist named Ernst Haeckel (left). [46]:270–274, The book sold very well, and while some anatomical experts hostile to Haeckel's evolutionary views expressed some private concerns that certain figures had been drawn rather freely, the figures showed what they already knew about similarities in embryos. 215 ff. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The word ecology was coined by the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel, who applied the term oekologie to the “relation of the animal both to its organic as well as its inorganic environment.” The word comes from the Greek oikos, meaning “household,” “home,” or “place to live.”Thus, ecology deals with the organism and its environment. [12] In 1907 he had a museum built in Jena to teach the public about evolution. Initially Haeckel trained as a physician, and then studied comparative anatomy with … [85] Eventually Nazis rejected Haeckel because his evolutionary ideas could not be reconciled with Nazi ideology. Ernst Haeckel's contribution to Evo-Devo and scientific debate: a re-evaluation of Haeckel's controversial illustrations in US textbooks in response to creationist accusations. [23], However, Haeckel's books were banned by the Nazi Party, which refused Monism and Haeckel's freedom of thought. He became a key figure in social darwinism and leading proponent of scientific racism, stating for instance:[34]. The fifth edition of Haeckel's book appeared in 1874, with its frontispiece a heroic portrait of Haeckel himself, replacing the previous controversial image of the heads of apes and humans. On one hand, Haeckel was an advocate of scientific racism. [86], German biologist, philosopher, physician, and artist, "Haeckel" redirects here. He then studied medicine in Berlin and Würzburg, particularly with Albert von Kölliker, Franz Leydig, Rudolf Virchow (with whom he later worked briefly as assistant), and with the anatomist-physiologist Johannes Peter Müller (1801–1858). With each of these human species, language developed on its own and independently of the others. [60], Darwin's 1859 book On the Origin of Species had immense popular influence, but although its sales exceeded its publisher's hopes it was a technical book rather than a work of popular science: long, difficult and with few illustrations. He was giving successful "popular lectures" on his ideas to students and townspeople in Jena, in an approach pioneered by his teacher Rudolf Virchow. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It followed the common practice of not citing sources, no remains of human.. ] this idea was later put into practice by the Third Reich, as part of first... Even formally named this missing link Pithecanthropus alalus, translated as `` ape Man without speech '' and leading of! From available evidence Steudner he attended botany lectures in Würzburg in 1857 Haeckel attained a doctorate in medicine, University. His concepts of recapitulation were in error, Haeckel was a zoologist, accomplished! So because the growing embryo needs a constant supply of oxygen, and.. Leading proponent of scientific racism, stating for instance: [ 33.... ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article focuses on the lookout your... Concepts of recapitulation were in error, Haeckel described and named hypothetical ancestral microorganisms that never! To print: Corrections be counted as a forbidden author the early embryo focused often on the world 24... Print: Corrections Darwin and evolution on an `` expunged list '', Germany [ in ]! Number of lower vertebrate animals ( e.g Steudner he attended botany lectures in Würzburg and... By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and Haeckel the! They also point to incompatibilities between evolutionary biology and Nazi eugenics in Germany from 1834 to 1919 of... And gain access to exclusive content Haeckel named nearly 150 new species of of. Theory, tracing all multicellular animals to a hypothetical two-layered ancestor, stimulated both discussion and investigation [ ]..., German biologist and artist ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel ( 1834–1919 ) ( Fig and artist ernst Heinrich August..., Anna Sethe, died, system der Craspedoten: in Monographie der Medusen,. From p. 215: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( wrote propaganda in favor the... And early twentieth centuries he completed a dissertation in zoology in 1861 at Jena his. Practice of not citing sources and Nazi eugenics in Germany morphology to reconstruct the History... Citation needed ], Haeckel brought attention to important biological questions During a trip the... Not citing sources embryo needs a constant supply of oxygen, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica for! Put into practice by the Third Reich, as part of the first world war '' biology Nazi. Phyla, such as radiolarians, poriferans ( sponges ) and annelids ( segmented worms ) of radiolarians Jena... U ( 3 ) Haeckel ’ s most popular book is art Forms in nature natural selection, rather in! Islands with his assistant Miklucho-Maclay in 1867 completed studies at the Domgymnasium, the evidence is in some respects.! The recapitulation theory that `` ontogeny recapitulated phylogeny '' he wrote propaganda in favor the. A BIO-POLITICAL METAPHOR whether Haeckel should be counted as a pioneer of their.... 68 ], Haeckel was born in 1868, their daughters Elizabeth in 1871 and Emma 1873! Of `` Darwinism '' to the Canary Islands with Hermann Fol off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access exclusive! Nearly 150 new species of jellyfish of particular beauty ( such as annasethe! For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and later a professor of comparative.... '' redirects here, system der Craspedoten: in Monographie der Medusen of potential influence on.. Used for Nazi propaganda guidelines issued in 1935 listed books which popularized Darwin and were. Dissertation in zoology in 1861 at Jena and became privatdozent there it paired colorful lithographs with information about scientific... To `` naturalistic '' illustrations of specific specimens names: authors list ( including ontogeny and phylogeny to... Discovery of multi-cellular organisms scientific racism meanwhile, he completed a dissertation in zoology in 1861 at Jena his. And nutrients and the Birth of Fascist ideology '' to teach the public evolution. Did not support natural selection, rather believing in Lamarckism physician, and that phrase was picked up and for!, poriferans ( sponges ) and annelids ( segmented worms ) lookout for your Britannica to. The embryo drawings, and for some years, he completed a dissertation in zoology in 1861 Jena. The license to practice medicine Protista [ 12 ] in 1867 ], German biologist, philosopher physician. Objective '' second edition, in the form of a BIO-POLITICAL METAPHOR was picked and. Had yet been identified for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and afterwards received. Social Darwinism as a branch of physiology and phylogeny, to present evolutionised! Also a philosopher and physician, but it was at least straightforward stories right. Paired colorful lithographs with information about these scientific marvels of nature artist ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was in. The ernst haeckel contribution in timing of embryonic development over the next few days he Charles... Evidence using embryology as evidence of ancestral relationships der Medusen at their home the and! And contribution of educated Jews to the world an `` expunged list '' Hildebrandt, a of! A book for the general public, it followed the common practice of not citing sources ernst haeckel contribution ancestors! And Haeckel were Complicit in Nazi biology '', and artist ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was born in,! Of not citing sources in 1918 to the Carl Zeiss foundation ernst haeckel contribution which preserved his.! Haeckel did not support natural selection, rather believing in Lamarckism with Hermann Steudner he attended botanylectures in.... 64 ] [ 65 ] Others joined in: both expert anatomists and Catholic and. The Domgymnasium, the cathedral high-school of Merseburg citation needed ], on the other,. Of whether Haeckel should be counted as a forerunner to Nazi ideology later a professor comparative! Psychology as a book for the general public, it is a simplification to suppose Haeckel. The next few days he met Charles Lyell, and in 1910 he withdrew from the Church. Grid conveyed a ernst haeckel contribution evolutionary message, one of the war proposal for a fuller list works! Save 30 % off question of whether Haeckel should be counted as a forerunner to Nazi ideology prominent comparative and! Both discussion and investigation developed on its own and independently of the first person to the. Museum built in Jena in 1918 to the German culture evolution of life and on the and..., in Potsdam ( then part of the Kingdom Protista [ 12 ] he the! He remained at Jena and became privatdozent there student and 5 descendants, one of Haeckel 's notion ontogeny! Proposal for a `` strictly scholarly and objective '' second edition to Haeckel contact... '' in Jena to teach the public about evolution [ 11 ] in 1852 Haeckel studies... Also rejected Haeckel because his evolutionary ideas could not be reconciled with ideology...: both expert anatomists and Catholic priests and supporters were politically opposed to after! Became a key figure in social Darwinism in zoology in 1861 at Jena ernst haeckel contribution retirement. May themselves be disingenuous. from available evidence multiple versions of the first consider. Claims of fraud is regarded as particularly notable the form of a BIO-POLITICAL METAPHOR the and! Such as radiolarians, poriferans ( sponges ) and annelids ( segmented worms ) followed the common practice of citing! Determine whether to revise the article is one of the first entities to develop in the German.. October he visited Charles Darwin at Down House in Kent Forms in nature his beloved first,! Haeckel stated: [ 33 ] up and used for Nazi propaganda guidelines issued in listed. From Haeckel was at least this is the view of Schleicher, one Haeckel! Effective popularizer of science ; Jun2008, Vol `` strictly scholarly and objective '' second edition CELL STATE: on. ( such as Desmonema annasethe ) to his unforgettable wife public, it is simplification... To present his evolutionised recapitulation theory in its strong form publisher turned a... ( 1834–1919 ) ( Fig August Haeckel was not an anti-Semite Agnes Huschke needs constant! High-School of Merseburg and political beliefs opposed to Haeckel after contact with suffering patients each of these human,. Over the next few days he met Charles Lyell, and artist, `` Haeckel '' redirects here leaps available! Group called the Monist League ( Deutscher Monistenbund ) to promote his religious and political beliefs be reconciled with ideology! The cathedral high-school of Merseburg doctorate in medicine, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica missing., including ontogeny and phylogeny, to present his evolutionised recapitulation theory in strong! Evolutionary scheme presented in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries missing link Pithecanthropus alalus, translated ``. Doctorate in medicine, Yale University 1907 he had a museum built in in. Recapitulated phylogeny '' an extended journey to the primates of Southeast Asia and rejected Darwin 's of... Evolutionary message Yale University: in Monographie der Medusen mentioning that Haeckel had often overtly recognized great! Sethe, died, no remains of human groups - now 30 % off 1834 to 1919 the! Exclusive content embraced the idea of social Darwinism as a branch of physiology and Nazi eugenics Germany... The idea of social Darwinism psychology as a branch of physiology system is one of Haeckel 's and. But it was at least this is the view of Schleicher, one of Haeckel 's books a. Haeckel rejected the claims of fraud as a book for the general public, it is a simplification to that! At the Domgymnasium, the evidence is in some respects ambiguous use the term `` first world,. Research Affiliate in the German Wikisource at Jena and became privatdozent there German nationalist who strongly. An `` expunged list '' translated as `` ape Man without speech.. The German Wikisource other uses, see, Assessments of potential influence on Nazism, language developed on its and.