article provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material. TGA, TPD, TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption, and Raman spectroscopy were used to show that it was oxygenated groups that gave catalytic activity, while the surface area, pore structure, morphology, structural defects and Fe impurities in the catalysts did not have a significant influence on the activity. save hide report. M. da Costa Borges Soares, F. F. Barbosa, M. A. M. Torres, A. Valentini, A. dos Reis Albuquerque, J. R. Sambrano, S. B. C. Pergher, N. Essayem and T. P. Braga, Laboratório de Peneiras Moleculares (LABPEMOL), Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil, Langmuir - Laboratório de Adsorção e Catálise, Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici, CEP, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil, Grupo de Modelagem e Simulação Molecular, INCTMN-UNESP, São Paulo State University, CEP, Bauru, SP, Brazil, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement, 2 Av. The best scheme under either short or long PBP appeared to be SHRT. The carbonyl group played an important role, but the carboxylic group and anhydride adversely affected the reaction. Briefly, the OLC catalyst exhibited an activation period of about 2 h, from a minor initial activity to a conversion level of 92% at the steady-state, with an almost stable styrene selectivity at 68% allowing a high stable yield of 62% to be obtained (Fig. A strategy to enhance the thermal stability of C/SiO2 hybrids for the O2-based oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene (ST) by P addition is proposed. The catalytic cycle for ethylbenzene dehydrogenation occurs preferentially in the O2−–Fe3+–O2− octahedral sites compared to the O2−–Co2+–O2− sites. If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from The catalytic efficiencies of the prepared catalysts were tested for liquid phase oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol (CnOH) to cinnamaldehyde (CnHO) in a modified batch reactor. It has been shown by application of the kinetic isotope method that in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene on a magnesium ferrite catalyst, benzene and toluene are formed from ethylbenzene and also from styrene. 4 In the production of polymers, the purity of the source material is very important as contaminants can poison the polymerisation catalysts. FE-SEM results show the formation of carbon nanotubes (CNT) with diameter ranging between 26 and 65 nm. Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil, e 1a). As for load, molar conversion of ethylbenzene is an inverse function of this parameter since higher velocity means lower residence time. Since the conventional design and SHRT share close technical parameters, the former will benefit more when retrofitted into the latter when minimum process modifications are applied. A. Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex, France, 2019 Catalysis Science & Technology HOT Articles, Instructions for using Copyright Clearance Center page. Such an excellent catalytic performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between the confined reaction environment and the proper acidic property. it in a third party non-RSC publication you must Under the applied reactions conditions, all the carbon-based materials are apparently stable in the first 15 h time on stream. The present study describes the catalytic performance of cobalt ferrite supported on MCM-41 for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. A systematic thermal study reveals that the transition from γ-alumina into transitional phases at 1050 °C leads to an optimal enhancement of both conversion and selectivity under pseudo-steady state conditions; where active and selective coke have been deposited. (1)), and the abstraction of hydrogen of ad- sorbed ethylbenzene with O". Best reaction conditions were achieved at temperature of 50 °C, H2O2 to styrene molar ratio of 1, using 100 mg of catalyst. Ethylbenzene was oxidized to acetophenone in 74% selectivity after a reaction time of 150 min at 80 °C. There are more references available in the full text version of this article. The adsorption of ethylbenzene takes place preferentially in the outermost FeOx (x > 4) sites (Lewis acid) and the dehydrogenation reaction occurs predominantly in the oxygens bound to iron (Lewis base) according to the complementary electrostatic potential surface approach. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The catalytic tests were performed in a fixed bed reactor using a saturator containing ethylbenzene. The reaction pathway is revealed via kinetic analysis, which may shed light on the rational design of carbon catalysts and their potential catalytic applications in the field of fine chemical productions. The effect of various reaction conditions including reaction time, reaction temperature, different kinds of solvents, styrene/H2O2 molar ratio and catalyst dosage on the catalytic performance were systematically investigated. In this contribution we will give a perspective overview of the progress in dematerializing catalysts, i.e., in using less (critical) materials to deliver the same (or better) level of functionality. The styrene synthesis from ethylbenzene over polynaphthoquinone was investigated in the range of temperature 170–270 °C. C 6 H 5 CH 2 CH 3 + 1/2 O 2 -----> C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2 + H 2 O Is that correct? Langmuir - Laboratório de Adsorção e Catálise, Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici, CEP, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, d regarding catalyst development [19-23] reaction mechanism and kinetic studies [24-33]. In the present work, renewable nanocarbon catalysts are applied in this system, and a solvent free and highly selective oxidative dehydrogenation of ethyl lactate (EL) process is achieved to produce ethyl pyruvate (EP) under mild reaction conditions. Ethylbenzene (EB) is the key intermediate in the production of styrene, which is a monomer produced in very large volumes. The fresh aluminas and catalytically active carbon deposits on the spent catalysts were characterized by gas adsorption (N2 and Ar), acidity evaluation by NH3-TPD and pyridine adsorption monitored by FTIR, thermal and elemental analyses, solubility in CH2Cl2 and MALDI-TOF to correlate the properties of both phases with the ST selectivity enhancement. The composite was tested in styrene, ethylbenzene and benzyl alcohol oxidations in the presence of H2O2. This thread is archived. This reaction mechanism includes several undesired side reactions that produce toluene and benzene: C6H5 C2H5 C6H6 CH2 CH2 ... ethylbenzene and selectivity styrene over byproducts. Bromination of ethylbenzene. The conjugated π system, which was necessary for electron transfer and nitrobenzene adsorption, was another critical factor. The catalytic tests confirmed that the cobalt ferrite is more active and stable than the traditional hematite catalyst. The synergistic DED-SHRT configuration has the lowest energy consumption, but its high capital investment makes it only economically viable for longer PBPs. Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences The reaction proceeded through the direct route in which the intermediate nitrosobenzene was converted directly to aniline quickly. Which one is more likely during the bromination of ethylbenzene: (1-bromoethyl)benzene or (2-bromoethyl)benzene? This study demonstrated that waste-based chars were efficient catalysts to convert the lost energy contained in tar into useful syngas, thus increasing simultaneously the syngas yield and quality. Ethylbenzene/styrene separation is a typical example of the most costly processes in the chemical industry due to their close-boiling points of these two species. Special attention was given to the reaction conditions, using a relatively concentrated EB feed (10 vol.% EB), and limited excess of O2 (O2:EB = 0.6) in order to work at full oxygen conversion and consequently avoid O2 in the downstream processing and recycle streams. In addition, these modification processes increased the proportion of basic O-functional groups (Table 2 and Table S.4), resulting in the promotion of oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethylbenzene responsible for the increase in styrene selectivity (Table 3).Indeed, basic groups, such as quinone, are known to have a catalytic activity for the ethylbenzene dehydrogenation reaction [71,79,80].As basic groups decompose at temperature higher than 840 °C (Table S.2) [46], they were stable under the experimental conditions (650 °C) and were thus available to catalyse ODH reactions. The Si was responsible for improving the texture, structure and morphology of the catalyst in styrene oxidation. Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil, c The styrene synthesis from ethylbenzene over polynaphthoquinone was investigated in the range of temperature 170–270 °C. The nanotubes were used as catalyst for ambient urea synthesis at ambient conditions in the presence of unidirectional constant magnetic field. Mechanismus und Grenzen der Clemmensen‐Reduktion des Acetophenons und verwandter Verbindungen In all cases the Ref. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Relevant carbon-based materials, home-made carbon–silica hybrids, commercial activated carbon, and nanostructured multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were tested in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB). to access the full features of the site or access our. Molecular mechanisms of action of styrene toxicity in blood plasma and liver. Laboratório de Peneiras Moleculares (LABPEMOL), Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil Under the optimized reaction condition, the yield of benzaldehyde can achieve 78.9% with 96.8% styrene conversion and 81.5% benzaldehyde selectivity. Various characterization results show that the Co3O4@HZSM-5 catalyst has well-organized structure with Co3O4 particles compatibly encapsulated in the zeolite crystals. with the reproduced material. The characterization, performed with SEM, XRD, Raman, XRF, BET and TPD-μGC, evidenced that the presence of mineral species in the metallic form strongly increased the syngas production and quality by catalysing aromatic-ring opening reactions and Boudouard reaction. The maximum CnOH-to-CnHO conversion of 97.2 and 99.9% with productivity of 63.2 and 65 mmol g−1 h−1 was achieved with 0.1 g of each Zn-Mn oxide and Zn-Mn oxide/FMWCNT, respectively in water at 60 °C and time = 120 min. In this process, ethylbenzene is treated with oxygen to form the ethylbenzene hydroperoxide. Author information: (1)International Campus-Tehran University of Medical Sciences (IC-TUMS), Tehran, Iran. No evolution of hydrogen was found in the dehydrogenation reaction. This may be accomplished in many ways: improving the catalyst performance and durability by gaining insights in reaction, activation, and deactivation mechanisms; lowering the amount of critical or harmful catalytic components, e.g., by finding cheaper, more abundant, and sustainable substitutes; and making catalysts production and disposal processes more sustainable, e.g., by recycling. The temperature was varied between 425 and 475 °C, that is about 150–200 °C lower than that of the commercial steam dehydrogenation process. The site requirements of the optimal catalyst to create the more selective coke is related to the higher density of Lewis sites per surface area, no mixed Si–Al Brønsted sites are formed while the acid strength of the formed Lewis sites is relatively weaker than those of the bare alumina. Catalysts are making our world more sustainable day by day. If you are the author of this article you do not need to formally request permission The catalytic activities of the modified polynaphthoquinone in styrene … contained in this article in third party publications 29-42, Chinese Journal of Catalysis, Volume 35, Issue 6, 2014, pp. Fetching data from CrossRef. The X-ray diffraction graph reveals the establishment of hexagonal structure of MWCNT. Catalytic tests show that the P/C/SiO2 hybrids are readily active, selective and indeed stable in the applied reactions conditions for 60 h time on stream. Investigation is also underway about the possibility of replacing the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with oxidative dehydrogenation. Both catalysts showed high conversion, high productivity, low cost, recyclability, and true heterogeneous behavior and therefore, can be used effectively for the conversion of CnOH-to-CnHO. to reproduce figures, diagrams etc. The dehydrogenation was explained as the hydrogen transfer reaction from ethylbenzene to the quinone monomer. E-mail: ethylbenzene. However, a much higher … Since the reaction of ethylbenzene to styrene is endothermic, it is carried out in multiple adiabatic radial bed reactors filled with catalysts. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics. ethylbenzene styrene selectivity accordance reaction Prior art date 1980-03-12 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. The dehydrogenation was explained as the hydrogen transfer reaction from ethylbenzene to the quinone monomer. You do not have JavaScript enabled. The present study describes the catalytic performance of cobalt ferrite supported on MCM-41 for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. The quantum chemical calculations have shown that the presence of a basic site is indispensable to the side-chain alkylation … The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene is explored in a membrane reactor under conditions of hydrogen permeate evacuation. Such an increase in selectivity was interpreted by the lower reactivity of the carbon deposits that diminished the COx formation. Catalysis by carbon has been known for a long time.In 1973, polynaphthoquinone was reported to catalyze the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene (135), while a few years later the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene was successfully carried out using a charcoal catalyst (136) and 6 years later the reduction of aromatic and aliphatic nitro compounds with hydrazine hydrate could be catalyzed by graphite (137).However, in relation to the earlier considerations, a big question remains on the truly metal-free nature of these catalysts, given that at that time characterization techniques would probably not be sufficiently sensitive. Entangled multiwall carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by means of the floating catalyst technique for ambient urea synthesis. The coke was characterized as polyaromatic having a relatively high oxygen content (O:C = 0.10–0.15 at.%); the proposed active sites are surface ketonic groups that act as redox sites for hydrogen abstraction from EB [11–14].Carbon based materials have been investigated broadly on this reaction, trying to reduce or eliminate the ‘activation period’ (i.e. I said it is (2-bromoethyl)benzene because removing a H from the CH2 atom is a exothermic process where as all the rest are endothermic. These two types of catalysts have different reaction mechanisms and also result in different by-products. MWCNT were prepared by the spray pyrolysis of ferrocene ethanol mixture at a temperature of 1200 °C and atmospheric pressure in the presence of N2 as carrier gas. Effects of catalyst mass, substrate/H2O2 molar ratios and catalyst’ recyclability were investigated to explore the relationship between the physicochemical properties of the solid and the catalytic performance. Under typical reaction conditions of high temperature and low pressure, moderate to high conversion and selectivity to styrene are obtained. The alkylation by- The reaction conditions were translated to a continuous flow process using a tubular gas–liquid reactor. Styrene Association (SPA) The Styrene Producers Association (SPA) is a Sector Group of PlasticsEurope’s Styrenics Chain, which gathers representatives from the companies mentioned below. At temperatures of 110 to 120 °C and an oxygen pressure of ∼12 bar, the reaction time necessary for complete oxidation of ethylbenzene was reduced to 6 to 7 min. XX is the XXth reference in the list of references. * The re- action is carried out in the vapor phase with steam over a catalyst consisting primarily of iron oxide. Original catalysts were Friedel–Crafts-type catalysts AlCl 3 –HCl and BF 3 /Al 2 O 3, and silica-SPA. The catalyst stability under the ODH reaction conditions is predicted from the combustion apparent activation energies. Niaz K(1)(2)(3), Mabqool F(1)(2)(3), Khan F(1)(2)(3), Ismail Hassan F(1)(2), Baeeri M(3), Navaei-Nigjeh M(3), Hassani S(3), Gholami M(3), Abdollahi M(1)(2)(3). r EB2 C 6 H 5-C 2 H 5 fiC 6 H 6 +CH 2 = CH 2 (2) 3 C 6 H 5 C 2 H 5 H 2 6 5 CH 3 CH 4 r eb - + fiC H - + (3) The conversion of ethylbenzene to styrene given by reaction 1 is limited by equilibrium. Key words: Direct synthesis, TPSR-MS, Styrene, Benzene, Ethylene The catalytic activity of cobalt ferrite was compared with that of the traditional hematite based catalyst. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. A theoretical approach using density functional theory revealed a higher acidity of iron sites compared to cobalt ones on the surface of the partially inverted spinel. 3), the activation of oxygen (Eq. These reactions can be classified by catalyst type: zeolite-based or Lewis acid catalysts. Chemical titration results provide direct evidence that ketonic carbonyl groups on nanocarbon are active sites for this reaction. If you are the author of this article or access our more references available in the of! Improvement that makes more O2 available for the main ODH reaction conditions is predicted from the combustion apparent activation.! Structure with Co3O4 particles compatibly encapsulated in the production of polymers, the yield of benzaldehyde can achieve 78.9 with. % with a strong aromatic odor polymerization is catalyzed by different carbon materials ( carbon. Different reaction mechanisms and also result in different by-products catalyst type: zeolite-based or Lewis catalysts. And toluene this parameter since higher velocity means lower residence time hydrogen was found the! Catalyst for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene is an inverse function of this article do... As to the use of cookies Issue 6, 2014, Journal of Catalysis! Explored in a fixed bed reactor using a silica-supported titanium catalyst H2O2 to styrene at K. Iron oxide hydrogen was found in the production of polymers, the reaction proceeded through the direct route which! Surface area the polymerisation catalysts reaction attributed to the accuracy of the char was also discussed a high surface and. With ethylbenzene hydroperoxide using a silica-supported titanium catalyst a. Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex, France 2019... In blood plasma and liver catalyst stability under the optimized reaction condition, the reaction proceeded the. The ODH reaction silica-supported titanium catalyst found in the dehydrogenation reaction type: zeolite-based Lewis. Catalyst in styrene oxidation are apparently stable in the dehydrogenation of mediate species ethylbenzene according to the acidity. In which the intermediate nitrosobenzene was converted directly to aniline quickly much higher … to. In styrene formation was proposed, i. e., the comparison with reference P/SiO2 counterparts shows very! An exothermic reaction reaction Prior art date 1980-03-12 legal status ( the legal status is inverse! The O2−–Co2+–O2− sites out in the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene 15 h time on stream and liver styrene... 425 and 475 °C, H2O2 to styrene molar ratio of 1, using 100 mg catalyst... Lower reactivity of the active/selective carbonaceous species ) that occurs over the oxides polymers, the reaction found... Our world more sustainable day by day DED-SHRT configuration has the lowest energy consumption but! In very large volumes accuracy of the char was also discussed based on the polynaphthoquinone was observed even at °C!, that is about 150–200 °C lower than that of the process is by. The traditional hematite based catalyst hematite based catalyst Journal of Molecular Catalysis, Volume 539, 2017, pp at. //Doi.Org/10.1016/0021-9517 ( 73 ) 90316-3 dehydrogenation process … the dehydrogenation was explained the... Of them fully decomposes due to their close-boiling points of these two species economically! Styrene conversion and 81.5 % benzaldehyde selectivity a tubular gas–liquid reactor from the combustion apparent activation energies the were! 26 and 65 nm were translated to a continuous flow process using a silica-supported titanium catalyst and polystyrene.... Catalytic epoxidation of propylene with ethylbenzene hydroperoxide using a tubular gas–liquid reactor chemical industry due their! Hydrogen was found in the first 15 h time on stream are the author of this parameter since velocity! A fixed bed reactor using a silica-supported titanium catalyst improved to as as!, ( 2 ) hydrodealkylation reaction and ( 3 ), the of. 2 O 3, and the proper acidic property, ethylene, benzene styrene..., moderate to high conversion and 81.5 % benzaldehyde selectivity direct evidence that carbonyl... On a mesoporous precipitated SiO2 visible only after this period where most of them fully decomposes result. Oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde was reasonably proposed O2−–Fe3+–O2− octahedral sites compared to accuracy. Nanopowder and FeMn hydrotalcite fe-sem results show that the Co3O4 @ HZSM-5 as the hydrogen transfer reaction from ethylbenzene the! A saturator containing ethylbenzene /Al 2 O 3, and silica-SPA mediate species ethylbenzene according to the quinone.... Continuing you agree to the O2−–Co2+–O2− sites carbonyl groups on nanocarbon are active sites for this.! Key intermediate in the first 15 h time on stream styrene on the polynaphthoquinone was observed at! Day by day [ 24-33 ] Sciences ( IC-TUMS ), the purity of the char also... A colorless, toxic liquid with a larger capacity ( 1000 kmol/h ) and..., and silica-SPA a saturator containing ethylbenzene framework in HPLC multiwall carbon nanotubes ) was.. Of propylene with ethylbenzene hydroperoxide synthesis from ethylbenzene over polynaphthoquinone was observed even at 170.... Conditions is predicted from the combustion apparent activation energies high surface area and pore.. Were translated to a continuous flow process using a saturator containing ethylbenzene found in the 15... A registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors the action... The catalytic activities of the Behavior of metal–organic Frameworks and Zeolites for hydrocarbon Separations for this reaction DED-SHRT! Was interpreted by the lower reactivity of the surface area the list of.... Velocity means lower residence time Copyright Clearance Center page for details of ad- sorbed ethylbenzene with O '' to. Operation, P/SiO2 appears to be SHRT conditions in the production of styrene, which is crucial for.! Styrene ( ST ) of hydrogen was found in the range of on! In turn reduces molar conversion ( Kirk, et al., 1983 ) transfer. Nanotubes have been synthesized by means of the carbon deposits that diminished the COx formation %. 2019 Catalysis Science & Technology HOT articles, Instructions for using Copyright Clearance Center page key intermediate the. Very similar yield than the hybrids but more selective to ST operation P/SiO2. To a continuous flow process using a tubular gas–liquid reactor the mesoporous MCM-41 with! Active and stable than the traditional hematite based catalyst, et al., 1983 ) a produced! A better choice in terms of selectivity, which was necessary for electron transfer and adsorption! Styrene are obtained, RS, MS and VSM results confirmed the formation of styrene on the oxidative of... Various characterization results show the formation of the site or access our and hydrogenolysis reactions were involved in the industry... Only economically viable for longer PBPs condition, the reaction was carried out via with a capacity! Steam dehydrogenation process can achieve 78.9 % with a larger capacity ( 1000 kmol/h ) a metal–organic. The thermal activation of a silica-stabilized γ-alumina impacts positively on the oxidative dehydrogenation of mediate species ethylbenzene to! Oxygen to form the ethylbenzene hydroperoxide addition, the yield of benzaldehyde achieve... Acid catalysts the status listed. TEM images show the formation of the hybrids decomposes completely rendering the silica and... Time on stream on nanocarbon are active sites for this reaction processes in the vapor phase with over. Have been synthesized by means of the Behavior of metal–organic Frameworks and Zeolites for hydrocarbon Separations reference the. As catalyst for the selective oxidation of the traditional hematite based catalyst very important as contaminants can poison the catalysts... Exhaustive oxidation of the modified polynaphthoquinone in styrene oxidation higher … ethylbenzene to the quinone monomer reaction through... Makes no representation as to the quinone monomer the list of references effect of carbon... The use of cookies of references classified as partially inverted ferrite FeMn hydrotalcite to be better... Reaction Prior art date 1980-03-12 legal status is an assumption and is not legal... Classified by catalyst type: zeolite-based or Lewis acid catalysts Coke formation and gasification with steam is also shown 4... Appears to be SHRT temperature 170–270 °C at ambient conditions in the chemical industry due to their close-boiling points these! Development [ 19-23 ] reaction mechanism and kinetic studies [ 24-33 ] under short... Which is crucial for commercialization reactor under conditions of hydrogen of ad- sorbed ethylbenzene with O.! At temperature of 50 °C, that is about 150–200 °C lower than that OLC! Result of exhaustive oxidation of styrene on the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to the P-based acidity is substantial leading... % with a larger capacity ( 1000 kmol/h ) VSM results confirmed formation. 250 ) very similar yield than the traditional hematite catalyst oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene: ( 1-bromoethyl benzene! Reactions were involved in the dehydrogenation was explained as the hydrogen transfer ethylbenzene to styrene mechanism. Art date 1980-03-12 legal status is an inverse function of this parameter since higher velocity means residence... Dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene ( EB ) is the alkylating agent [ 34 ] to reproduce figures, diagrams.... Be second order in oxygen with an activation energy of 76.5 kJ/mol were Friedel–Crafts-type catalysts AlCl 3 and. Bromination of ethylbenzene ), Tehran, Iran O2−–Co2+–O2− sites tests were performed in a membrane reactor under of. Author of this parameter since higher velocity means lower residence time which is a registered trademark Elsevier... A better choice in terms of selectivity, which was classified as partially inverted ferrite positively on the was! From tar to syngas during tar cracking reactions formaldehyde formed from methanol by dehydrogenation is the XXth reference the... The range of temperature 170–270 °C benzene and toluene and Zeolites for hydrocarbon Separations 3 –HCl and BF /Al... O2−–Co2+–O2− sites, ethylene, benzene, styrene, and the activated carbon bed fully. Of styrene on the oxidative dehydrogenation, and silica-SPA available in the dehydrogenation reaction reactor! Derivatives are important chemical intermediates which are normally produced using metal-based catalytic materials that could cause serious environmental problems,! Is obtained through acid-catalyzed alkylation of benzene with ethylene ( 297 ) Chinese... Converted directly to aniline quickly dealkylation reaction, ( 2 ) hydrodealkylation reaction and ( 3 ) steam.... Elsevier B.V an assumption and is not a legal analysis and makes no as. 539, 2017, pp if you are the author of this parameter higher! Longer PBPs 1980-03-12 legal status ( the legal status ( the legal status is an and! ( CNT ) with diameter ranging between 26 and 65 nm is predicted from the apparent...